As a member of ISPI, you can share in Dr. Richard Pearlstein’s last issue as editor of Performance Improvement Quarterly, Volume 26, Number 1. In addition, you are able to search the archives which includes more than 700 past articles. Click here for member access to PIQ online.

Evaluating the Impact of a Performance-Based Methodology on Transfer of Training
Transfer of training is the degree to which trainees can apply the knowledge, skills, and attitudes gained in training to the job. Currently only between 5% and 20% of what is learned in training is ever applied on the job. At this time, little is known about the effects of work environment factors, such as support, feedback, and goal setting, on training transfer. We utilized a quasi-experimental between-groups design using surveys, interviews, and behavioral measures to evaluate the impact of performance-based work environment factors on training transfer. Results indicated that participants in the experimental group reported a higher level of training transfer than those in the control group. These findings suggest that a performance-based approach to training can be an effective method to increase the likelihood that employees transfer training knowledge to the job context.

Perceptions of Women and Men Leaders Following 360-Degree Feedback Evaluations
In this study, researchers used a customized 360-degree method to examine the frequency with which 1,546 men and 721 women leaders perceived themselves and were perceived by colleagues as using 10 relational and 10 task-oriented leadership behaviors, as addressed in the Management-Leadership Practices Inventory (MLPI). As hypothesized, men and women leaders, as well as their supervisors, employees, and peers, perceived women leaders to employ nine of the 10 relational leadership behaviors significantly more frequently than men leaders. Additionally, the employees’ perceptions of their women leaders’ use of task-oriented behaviors were significantly higher when compared to similar assessments from the employees of men leaders. However, the leaders as well as their supervisors and peers perceived men and women leaders’ use of task-oriented behaviors as approximately equal. Broader implications of these findings are discussed.

The Impact of Perception of Performance Appraisal and Distributive Justice Fairness on Employees’ Ethical Decision Making in Paternalist Organizational Culture
Ethics in decision making has been an issue for academics, practitioners, and governmental regulators for decades. In the last decade, numerous scandals and consequently many corporate crises in the global business world have added credence to the criticisms of business ethics. Therefore, it is vital to understand the factors affecting employees’ ethical decision making. Culture also has a strong impact on decision making. Paternalism is the combination of strong discipline, subordinate loyalty, and the superior’s generous concern for that subordinate, culminating in a more intricate and dominating relationship in the organization. A paternalist culture, by its very nature, has a powerful impact on decision making. Investigating the various factors affecting the decision-making process guides practitioners and managers toward taking the necessary steps to prevent unethical events in the future. In this study, the impacts of positive perception of distributive justice and performance appraisal fairness on employees’ ethical decision making in paternalist organizational culture are investigated. The total sample (N = 107) contained white-collar employees working in five small-medium enterprises in Turkey. The data was analyzed using correlation and regression analysis. The results showed only perception of performance appraisal fairness has an impact on employees’ ethical decision making. The study concludes by discussing the implications of the results for researchers interested in exploring ethical decision making and performance appraisal systems. Recommendations for future research are also presented.

Design and Validation of MAPS for Educators: A Performance Support System to Guide Media Selection for Lesson Design
The importance of adopting technology-supported performance systems for on-the-job learning and training is well-recognized in a networked economy. In this study, we present a performance support system (PSS) designed to support technology integration for lesson design. The goal is to support educators in the development of appropriate and effective technology integration strategies for learning and training events. The system is based on the PSS design architecture created by Hung and Chao (2007) called Matrix-Aided Performance System (MAPS). MAPS was created to minimize navigational confusion and enhance users’ comprehension and synthesis of information gathered from the PSS. Fifteen educators and instructional technologists were invited to evaluate the system’s readiness as well as to identify potential practical constraints that might hinder its use in a real-world setting. Findings from a perception survey and focus group interviews confirm the beneficial effects of the unified interface on navigation and orientation of content materials. Feedback provided by participants to improve the system interaction and functionality are also reported to further validate the design architecture of MAPS.

Video Game–Based Learning: An Emerging Paradigm for Instruction
Interactive digital media, or video games, are a powerful new medium. They offer immersive experiences in which players solve problems. Players learn more than just facts—ways of seeing and understanding problems so that they “become” different kinds of people. “Serious games” coming from business strategy, advergaming, and entertainment gaming embody these features and point to a future paradigm for eLearning. Building on interviews with leading designers of serious games, this article presents case studies of three organizations building serious games, coming from different perspectives but arriving at similar conclusions. This article argues that such games challenge us to rethink the role of information, tools, and aesthetics in a digital age.

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