In the November issue of PerformanceXpress, readers were given access to the Top 10 articles published in Performance Improvement journal. This month you are getting a treat. Performance Improvement Quarterly is ISPI’s peer-reviewed journal created to stimulate professional discussion in the field and to advance the discipline of HPT through the publishing of scholarly works. Access to these great articles and over 24 years’ worth archived on the Wiley Online Library is $45 for ISPI members. Today, we are giving you a taste of what you’re missing! Contact us today to subscribe at 301-587-8570 or

Transfer of Training: An Updated Review and Analysis
J. Kevin Ford and Daniel A. Weissbein

This study updates the Baldwin and Ford (1988) review of the empirical articles published on training transfer. The updated review and analysis revolves around the four key limitations noted in the original review: (1) the criterion problem of how and when to measure training transfer, (2) the generalizability of results from training design studies, (3) the choice of which trainee characteristics to examine for their impact on transfer, and (4) the conceptualization and operationalization of work environment factors that can impact transfer. Twenty studies were found in the literature since the 1988 review on training transfer. An analysis of these studies found that progress has been made in addressing many of the limitations noted by Baldwin and Ford. This paper concludes with a discussion of future research directions for training transfer research relevant to each of the four areas of criterion measurement, training design, trainee characteristics, and work environment.

Article has been cited in Journal of Vocational Education & Training, Personnel Psychology, Human Resource Development Quarterly, Annual Review of Psychology, International Journal of Training and Development, Human Resource Management, Journal of Foodservice Business Research, Human Performance, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, Clinical Psychology Review, British Journal of Educational Technology, Professional Development in Education, The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, Encyclopedia of E-Leadership, Counseling and Training, Social Work Education, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Journal of Further and Higher Education, Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, Performance Improvement Quarterly, and Performance Improvement journal.

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An Examination of the Relationship Among Structure, Trust, and Conflict Management Styles in Virtual Teams
Xiaojing Liu, Richard J. Magjuka, and Seung-hee Lee

The emergence of new technologies has made it increasingly easy for distributed collaboration in both educational and non-educational settings. Although the effectiveness in traditional settings of the dynamics of small group work has been widely researched, there is limited research that offers evidence on how teams can work effectively in a virtual environment. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship among team structure, trust, and conflict management style, in addition to their impact on teamwork effectiveness in a virtual environment. An experimental design was used to assess the effects of structure on team performance. Forty-four groups, divided into hierarchical and nonhierarchical groups, worked on an online simulation project in an online MBA course. The results suggest that team structure is strongly associated with team performance, whereas trust and a collaboration conflict management style contribute to teamwork satisfaction.

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How Instructional Design Experts Use Knowledge and Experience to Solve Ill-Structured Problems
Peggy A. Ertmer, Donald A. Stepich, Cindy S. York, Ann Stickman, Xuemei (Lily) Wu, Stacey Zurek, and Yuksel Goktas

This study examined how instructional design (ID) experts used their prior knowledge and previous experiences to solve an ill-structured instructional design problem. Seven experienced designers used a think-aloud procedure to articulate their problem-solving processes while reading a case narrative. Results, presented in the form of four assertions, showed that experts (1) narrowed the problem space by identifying key design challenges, (2) used an amalgam of knowledge and experience to interpret the problem situation, (3) incorporated a mental model of the ID process in their problem analyses, and (4) came to similar conclusions about how to respond to the situation, despite differences in their initial conceptualizations. Implications for educating novice instructional designers are discussed.

Article has been cited in Educational Technology Research and Development, Learning, Media and Technology, Instructional Technology Research, Design and Development, and Performance Improvement Quarterly.

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The Effect of Performance Support and Training as Performance Interventions
Frank Nguyen and James D. Klein

For decades, training has been one of the most common interventions used by organizations to improve the performance of their employees and teach them new ideas and skills. But owing to the cost of developing and delivering training, organizations have adopted alternative ways to enable employee performance while reducing the cost and minimizing the time users spend away from the job. One alternative is electronic performance support systems (EPSS). The present study examined the effect of EPSS and training on user performance, time on task, and time in training. Results revealed that participants receiving only EPSS and those receiving training and EPSS performed significantly better on a tax preparation procedure than participants who received only training. Training-only users also spent significantly more time completing the procedural task than their counterparts in other treatment groups, leading to a negative correlation between time on task and performance. The implications of these findings for the design and development of performance support and training interventions are discussed.

Article has been cited in Performance Improvement journal and Performance Improvement Quarterly.

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Implications of Domain-General ‘‘Psychological Support Skills’’ for Transfer of Skill and Acquisition of Expertise
David W. Eccles and Paul J. Feltovich

The article proposes that individuals who acquire certain psychological support skills may experience accelerated learning and enhanced performance in many domains. In support of this proposal, we present evidence that these skills enhance learning and performance, that they are domain-general in that they can be applied in a variety of domains, and that they can be taught and learned. We also discuss two implications of the skills for current theories of expertise. The first is that any observed transfer of expertise between domains might result as much from the support supplied by application of the skills during learning and performance as from any direct transfer achieved due to two domains sharing similar task elements. The second is that use of these skills might contribute to an understanding of how performers sustain the motivation necessary for the extended period of deliberate practice required to maximize skill acquisition.

Article has been cited in the Journal of European Industrial Training, Journal of Sports Sciences, and Applied Cognitive Psychology.

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Video Game-Based Learning: An Emerging Paradigm for Instruction
Kurt D. Squire

Interactive digital media, or video games, are a powerful new medium. They offer immersive experiences in which players solve problems. Players learn more than just facts—ways of seeing and understanding problems so that they “become” different kinds of people. “Serious games” coming from business strategy, advergaming, and entertainment gaming embody these features and point to a future paradigm for eLearning. Building on interviews with leading designers of serious games, this article presents case studies of three organizations building serious games, coming from different perspectives but arriving at similar conclusions. This article argues that such games challenge us to rethink the role of information, tools, and aesthetics in a digital age.

Article has been cited in International Journal of Gaming and Computer-Mediated Simulations, Interactive Technology and Smart Education, and Journal of Science Education and Technology.

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Managing Information Sharing Within an Organizational Setting: A Social Network Perspective
John-Paul Hatala and Joseph George Lutta

Information sharing is critical to an organization’s competitiveness and requires a free flow of information among members if the organization is to remain competitive. A review of the literature on organizational structure and information sharing was conducted to examine the research in this area. A case example illustrates how a social network approach was used to explore the process of measuring the social structure of an organization and the implementation of change interventions to increase connectivity and manage information sharing. The process of conducting social network analysis is described using the case example. Interventions for increasing information flow are discussed. The authors provide an information-sharing model that demonstrates the various domains of connectivity within an organization at any given state. The benefits of using social network analysis for information sharing and the implications for further research and practice are discussed.

Article has been cited in Government Information Quarterly, Information Sciences, and Organizational Learning and Knowledge.

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Organizational Change: Motivation, Communication, and Leadership Effectiveness
Ann Gilley, Jerry W. Gilley and Heather S. McMillan

Research indicates that numerous variables have an impact on a leader’s effectiveness. This study explores the behaviors associated with leadership effectiveness in driving change. The findings confirm previous research that identifies change effectiveness skills, while isolating the specific leader behaviors deemed most valuable to implementing change: motivation and communication.

Article cited in Performance Improvement Quarterly.

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In the Trainer’s Voice: A Study of Training Transfer Practices
Holly M. Hutchins

Data were gathered from members of a large professional training organization regarding their practices for supporting training transfer. Transfer factor categories grounded in the literature were used to code the data using content analysis procedures. Commensurate with the transfer literature, results suggest that trainers reported strategies used within the training setting and in the work environment as having the most influence on training transfer. Transfer practices that do not have a firm grounding in the research but that emerged in the data, trainer characteristics and evaluation practices, were reported by trainers as being important influences on training transfer. This study extends previous work on training transfer practices by elucidating the specific transfer influences perceived by training professionals as critical for supporting transfer in organizations. Implications for practice and research are offered that focus on building trainer proficiency for training transfer in organizational settings.

Article cited in Journal of Management Development and Performance Improvement Quarterly.

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Beyond the Learning Process and Toward the Knowledge Creation Process: Linking Learning and Knowledge in the Supportive Learning Culture
Seung Won Yoon, PhD, Ji Hoon Song, PhD, and Doo Hun Lim, PhD

This integrative literature review synthesizes the concepts and process of organizational knowledge creation with theories of individual learning. The knowledge conversion concept (Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995; Nonaka, Toyama, & Byosiere, 2001) is used as the basis of the organizational knowledge creation process, while major learning theories relevant to working adult learners are newly synthesized into four types of individual learning processes: adaptive, generative, transformative, and reflective. The results suggest an integrative conceptual flow map of individual and organizational learning facilitated by culture and management system enablers. Implications for using this conceptual framework for practicing performance technology solutions are also discussed.

Article cited in The Learning Organization, Issues of Business and Law, Human Resource Development International, and Performance Improvement Quarterly.

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