The Role of Theory in Instructional Design: Some Views of an ID Practitioner
Trudy K. Christensen

This article describes how an experienced instructional designer thinks about and uses learning theories to inform instructional design decisions. It uses a vision metaphor to provide a simple heuristic framework for identifying the nature of instructional problems and relating different types of problems to useful theoretical perspectives, methods of instructional analysis, and assessment strategies. Finally, it provides a synopsis of major learning theory perspectives and situations that could be addressed by applying models and strategies representing the different theoretical perspectives. Read full article (1.7 MB PDF file)

Measuring the ROI of a Coaching Intervention, Part 2
Jack J. Phillips

This article, the second of a two-part series, describes a case study application of the ROI MethodologyTM. In this case, a structured coaching program was implemented as part of a comprehensive performance improvement solution designed to improve efficiency, customer satisfaction, and revenue growth for Nations Hotel Corporation. This case study provides critical insights into how a project was systemically designed, delivered, and measured to create performance value, including a return on investment. Read full article (307 KB PDF file)

Linking Versus Searching: A Case Study of Performance Support Use
Frank Nguyen Matthew Hanzel

In highly competitive global organizations, the practice of hit-and-miss searching for information is a luxury seldom afforded. This article examines a case study of an organization that explored the use of different types of performance support interventions for four years. Results show that performance support systems that link to relevant support content were used significantly more than systems that required the performer to search for and locate information. A comparison of these findings with the existing literature and the implications of these results for performance technologists are discussed. Read full article (1.2 MB PDF file)

Improving Explanations of Performance
Robert A. Cicerone

Articles published in this journal contain explanations of performance that are illusory and untenable when the concepts used to explain performance lack an observable, physical referent. This article presents a job aid that distinguishes between explanatory concepts that have observable, physical referents and those that do not. It also illustrates how to use the job aid. Read full article (78 KB PDF file)

Seven Keys to Unlock the Four Levels of Evaluation
by Donald L. Kirkpatrick

Commentary (86 KB PDF file)

Learning by Viewing Versus Learning by Doing: Evidence-Based Guidelines for Principled Learning Environments
Ruth Colvin Clark Richard E. Mayer

A learner-centered approach is a central feature of instruction based on a constructivist learning model. However, there is some confusion regarding the requirement for behavioral activity as a prerequisite for a learner-centered environment. We offer evidence in this article that some types of behavioral activity can interfere with cognitive learning processes. We recommend that instructional professionals focus on cognitive activity and summarize evidence-based methods that support appropriate cognitive activity in behaviorally passive and active learning environments. Read full article (1.0 MB PDF file)

Justifying Human Performance Improvement Interventions
Rick Humphress and Zane L. Berge, PhD

This article discusses how to calculate the benefits for six Human Performance Improvement (HPI) interventions so that they can be used in a net present value investment equation: alignment with incentives and motivations; skills and information training; individual capacity; expectations; information and data; and resource allocation and support. For each approach, we provide a framework regarding how to calculate the dollar value of the HPI intervention, the time frame over which the analysis should be performed, and the degree of risk or uncertainty inherent in the intervention. The six HPI tools or methods are a major change effort heuristic, creating a distinctive competency, the Bliss-Gately tool for assessing the cost of turnover, power laws of practice, support cost saving heuristic, and a job characteristics model. The paper also includes a sidebar on risk assessment. Read full article (139 KB PDF file)

The Influence of Organizational and Human Resource Management Strategies on Performance
Raduan Che Rose, PhD, and Naresh Kumar, PhD

A data set of 42 Japanese multinational corporations operating in Malaysia shows that there are significant relationships among three major variables: organizational strategies, human resource practices, and firm performance. Significantly, the findings reflect that firms that believe in Human Resource Management (HRM) values—whereby they view people as source of competitive advantage and at the same time adopt differentiation strategies—are more likely to use high-involvement HRM strategies. Both differentiation and response speed strategies have significant impact on firm performance, even though differentiation strategies tend to have stronger effects. Most importantly, it was proven that firms with high involvement HRM strategies significantly correlate with firm performance. Read full article (180 KB PDF file)

The Partnership Between Project Management and Organizational Change: Integrating Change Management with Change Leadership
Barber Griffith-Cooper and Karyl King

The nature of project management is change. Even though all knowledge areas in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) are rooted in controlling change, none of these areas specifically addresses the human elements of change. There is a significant distinction between directly controlling change relative to the nonhuman aspects of a project (change control) and effecting change in the human dimensions of a project through leadership (change leadership). This article characterizes the distinctive activities of change leadership and change control and their interrelationship throughout the project life cycle. Although distinct, change control and change leadership are interdependent and mutually supporting—both are needed to support project success. Read full article (102 KB PDF file)

Getting Mind and Matter Right in the World of HPT
Holly Burkett, CPT, MA, SPHR

Editor’s notes. (61 KB PDF file)

Note: According to our publishing partner, John Wiley & Sons.