by David C. Forman
Increasingly, companies want to provide training
and learning opportunities for their top performers. These people, after
all, are responsible for the most revenue, the best ideas, and the greatest
impact on the competitive and future direction of the company. They are
the companys most important assets.
proposition of making the best better is compelling, it is difficult to
achieve. Often, exactly the opposite effect is achieved: what should be
a professionally exciting and enriching experience for top performers
is a boring and negative experience, at best. The problem arises because
we use the same educational models and approaches for this audience as
for others. The result is like the mixture of oil and waterit does
A big issue
with highly skilled audiences is motivation: why should they go through
traditional training when they are already at the top of their profession
or field? Because these people are so productive and capable, think of
how much money and mind-share is being lost by putting them
into a room to hear lectures on basic skills.
can be learned from successful projects aimed at improving the performance
of top performers. These projects included highly skilled people who were
senior account representatives with mid-six figure incomes, top engineers
at the cutting edge of technology, and senior consultants and practice
leaders at Big 5 firms. Traditional training approaches simply did not
work with such high-level, skilled, and experienced audiences.
critical success factor is that, in most cases, the primary objective
is not to teach these skilled audiences directly, but to create an environment
in which they analyze situations, solve problems, use their considerable
skills and expertise, and see the need for continuous improvement. These
audiences must be intellectually challenged; if not, they lose interest
and tune out (Clark, 2002).
critical success factor is experts learn best from experts. These can
be both internal and external experts, but they must have immediate credibility
with the audience. If they do not, the training is suspect and motivation
is lost. It is not even worth bringing in traditional trainers
to work with highly skilled audiences.
critical success factor is that the audience must have an important role
in their own learning. They could have a role in: selecting the experts,
defining the topics to be addressed, having ample time to ask their own
questions, interacting socially with the guru, and participating in challenging
activities with the expert.
tactical activities that have proven to be successful in training highly
skilled audiences are the following:
an executive message to frame the relevance and importance of the program.
Even highly skilled audiences need this grounding and business rationale.
best practices of revered internal performers: the Howie factor.
Once top sales people at a computer firm knew that Howie (who sold three
times more than anyone) had participated in designing the program, buy
in was swift.
in top external experts. Learn from the best. Motivation will be very
high once the word spreads that industry leaders are involved.
plenty of Q&A and even social time with the experts.
activities that are intellectually challenging and force people to solve
problems, analyze performance, and reflect on their own activities.
Some examples include the following (Rothwell & Kazanas, 1998):
actual data: Report data back to the group and have small groups analyze
the information and define next steps. Actual data can be a powerful
to common perceptions: Report these views, with actual quotes if possible,
and have small group sessions to analyze the findings.
rounds: Just as doctors report on their cases to colleagues and mentors,
live reporting sessions can be structured where participants
share cases and lessons learned.
documented case studies: Take several actual cases, document key activities
and include as much specific data as possible. Have small groups analyze
the situation and report their findings.
with each other: Establish situations where individuals or teams compete
with each other. Sales people, in particular, enjoy the competition
and find it highly motivating.
the tables: Take people out of their familiar roles. In a major account
selling program, a business simulation was created in which the account
execs became customer executives (note: the status of becoming a company
executive in the simulation was very well received).
a Web portal performance support system that houses information, tools,
and resources. It therefore is not important to teach this information,
but rather to show people how to access what they need, when they need
that the program continues and is more than just an isolated event.
If the program is perceived as a one-time wonder, then there will be
success factors and tactical suggestions will help to train highly skilled
audiences more effectively. Depending on the scope of the program, some
or all of these suggestions may apply. But it is very apparent that simply
transporting traditional training approaches to highly skilled and experienced
audiences will not work. New approaches, ideas, and techniques are required
to be successful.
Clark, R.C. (2002). The new ISD: Applying cognitive strategies to instructional
design. Performance Improvement, 41(7), 8-14.
W. & Kazanas, H. (1998). Mastering the instructional design process.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
C. Forman is President of Sage Learning Systems and a 20-year veteran
of the training and learning business. He has held executive positions
with leading training organizations and has worked with clients such
as IBM, FedEx, Ford, Allstate, Gateway, and American Express to design
innovative learning systems. He has authored more than 30 books
and articles and is founder of www.e-learningjobs.com.
David may be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
that the program continues and is more than just an isolated event.
If the program is perceived as a one-time wonder, then there will
be little support.
by Carol Haig, CPT and Roger Addison, CPT
month we chatted with Kathleen Whiteside
of Performance International, a consulting firm specializing in improving
performance by understanding work in business. She may be reached at email@example.com.
Kathleen has observed three recent trends in the arenas of organizational
implementation, operations, and performance.
reminds us that we performance technologists have a vested interest in
the successful implementation of our projects. Many of us have seen great
programs destroyed by poor planning. Performance International has had
consulting engagements to improve performance due to poor implementation
of enterprise-wide software, new product lines, or new cultures. As a
result, they have noted the importance of well-designed implementation.
Now it appears that others are agreeing, starting with Larry Bossidys
recently published book, Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things
Done. In it, Bossidy discusses the need for organizations to provide
clarity and focus for their projects and initiatives. He goes on to illustrate
how a well-executed implementation makes a valued contribution to these
recent economic misadventures and renewed focus on organizational survival,
infrastructure is suddenly IN. Workers want to know the most efficient,
effective ways to do their work and are asking for structure, methodologies,
and defined paths. They want systematic operational procedures.
Rather than spending their creative energies developing processes for
the known aspects of their jobs, they prefer to be given the best routes
to successful completion for these tasks so that they can concentrate
on solving their new, and far more interesting, work challenges.
organizations, Kathleen has observed that this current interest in operations
is likely cyclical. Often, there had been an operational structure in
the past but with changes in leadership and direction over time, the old
structure has been lost and needs to be rebuilt. In newer organizations,
an operational infrastructure may never have been created and now,
as maturity sets in, employees are recognizing how such a structure could
free their energies for more creative work.
of performance improvement have existed for some years now, practitioners
have historically experienced strong resistance around the globe to their
ideas. The standard reactions have usually included the listeners
expressed appreciation for the information about performance, followed
by a statement about how it would not work in their organization/culture/country.
In her work
with clients, Kathleen perceives a sea change, with people more open to
ideas and tools for performance improvement. Concepts that have
been written about, taught, and used for years are now resonating with
new, eager global audiences. Some of this awareness is a direct result
of pain: people have learned that the old solutions do not work, and they
are adopting performance-based solutions more readily. The client
selling cycle is becoming shorter.
of These Trends
is interesting to look at the inter-relationships among the three trends.
Workers want clarity about their organizations projects and initiatives.
Much of their confusion may come from experiencing flawed implementations
of these plans.
want to put their creative energies to work where they are really neededfor
new projects, technologies, and the challenging aspects of their jobs.
They want to be given operational procedures for their routine
the increased interest in performance improvement solutions is
blurring the lines between the soft skills and technology.
One software development client is actively using the HPT model in his
work because he now sees that its basis is the standard systems input/output
model. The desire to use non-training solutions, or performance
interventions, is also increasing.
for Performance Improvement
of Kathleens work is helping clients use a mapping
process for improving
jobs and work group performance. One unique aspect is that clients
can see where their jobs and their work processes intersect. For Performance
International, improving performance means Improving the implementation
and execution of work. The workplace stage is set for growth and
success when implementations are well planned and executed, efficient
operational processes are in place for routine tasks, and clients actively
seek performance improvement solutions.
L., Charan, R. & Burck, C. (2002). Execution:
The discipline of getting things done. New York: Crown
you have any suggestions about trends driving performance in todays
business environment that you feel would be of interest to the PerformanceXpress
readership, please contact Carol Haig, CPT at firstname.lastname@example.org
or Roger Addison, CPT at email@example.com.
by Pierre Mourier
in the management of complex organizational change
presents the senior leader with a more daunting proposition than minimizing
employee resistance. Our recent research indicates failure rates for change
of a staggering 70% or more. Yes, that is correct! Less than 30% of all
change efforts actually succeed in meeting the expectations of key stakeholders.
Just take a moment to imagine the money being almost purposely channeled
this way to become corporate write-offs in a year or two down the road.
and their senior leaders need all the help they can get. And guess what?
Help may be available where you least expect it, right at the end of your
nose. When you strip away all the consultant-created mumbo-jumbo surrounding
change management, what it boils down to is really just human behavior.
Change is all about getting people in an organization to behave differently.
Change is not about new systems or technologies, not about moving operations
to different locations, not about reengineering processes or about combining
functional areas. The fact is that people either embrace change or resist
it. Furthermore, employees can do this loudly or quietly:
Should Managers Do?
In the model you will notice that the change management sweet-spot
is where people embrace the change loudly and become champions. The most
dangerous people are those who quietly resist the change (perhaps while
nodding you to death!). The ideal situation is where you can
turn the people who quietly embrace the change while watching from the
sidelines into champions and where you can minimize the ferocity of resistance
from the opposers (opposers seldom become immediate champions). A further
ideal scenario is when you can convince the people who resist the change
in the shadows to become either champions, or perhaps more likely, watchers.
culture play a role in this picture? Well, if the organization is one
where you just do not rock the boat, you are almost certainly
doomed for change failure. The watchers will never come on board, and
the people in the shadows will never let their true feelings be known.
At least not quickly enough that it matters. If you, on the other hand,
have a culture where it is okay to rock the boat, your chances improve
dramatically. The watchers will more easily come on board, and the people
in the shadows will become opposers, which is okay because opposers are
easier to deal withat least you know where they are.
question is: Are you helping the leadership of your organization
rock the boat?
is all about getting people in an organization to behave differently.
Change is not about new systems or technologies, not about moving
operations to different locations, not about reengineering processes
or about combining functional areas.
and QBInternationals Resident Mad Scientist (a.k.a. Director of
Research and Development) Sivasailam Thiagi Thiagarajan has
created another interactive game designed especially for the readers of
Do you know
that Jim Hill is ISPIs 41st president? The last name
of a past president of ISPI is Lincoln. Do you know his first name?
(Hint: Its NOT Abraham.)
new game requires you to match the first and last names of ISPI presidents.
Sound simple? Well, this game will increase your fluency in performing
game by visiting: http://www.thiagi.com/ispi/match/html/ISPIPresidents.html
find a 3 x 4 grid with the first and last names of ISPI presidents on
different spaces. Click on a first name and the color changes. Now, click
on the corresponding last name. If the match is correct, the tiles disappear,
you hear a reinforcing sound, and your score increases. If the match is
incorrect, you hear an unpleasant sound. Your challenge is to correctly
match all first and the last names on the grid. To add excitement, you
have to do all this matching while a timer is counting down.
play the game at three levels of difficulty. At Level 1, you have to match
only four sets of names. At Level 2, you have to match five sets of names.
At Level 3, you have to match five sets and ignore an unmatchable red
herring. Click on the ? for additional instructions on how
to play the game at different levels.
by Brian Desautels, ISPI Director/Treasurer
International Society for Performance Improvements
fiscal year (FY) 02 ran from October 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002.
Just prior to the opening of that year, on 9/11, in the midst of our Fall
Conference, came the tragedy that would impact us financially. The economy,
already in the doldrums, continued to create caution among managers across
the U.S. These two events combined to make a challenging year for all
professional associations in general and ISPI specifically.
of ISPI is managed by a budget that is reviewed and revised annually by
the Executive Committee and the ISPI Board of Directors. Budget figures
are projections of expected revenue and expenses aimed at closing the
FY of this non-profit organization at either break-even or with a minor
level of excess revenue.
occurred, the FY02 budget was immediately revised to reflect lower projections
of revenue, to question which expenses to incur and which expenses to
limit, and to determine which activities would likely generate needed
revenue during the upcoming year. The global vision: practice very tight
management controls during FY02.
ISPI was forecasting a loss that would utilize about 25% of our existing
reserve. To the credit of the vision of past Boards and the hard work
of the administrative staff, over the past seven years the Society has
built up a cash reserve equal to six months of operating expenses (assuming
no incoming revenue) to be used during extremely difficult times. The
vision is that unforeseen, catastrophic events can occur that could create
a loss year; with a reserve, ISPI would not have to abandon any programs
while safely waiting for the storm to pass.
In the seven
years of building the reserve, ISPI never needed to utilize the funds.
Yet, FY02 did present itself as an unforeseen, catastrophic year. The
downturn in travel and the weakened economy impacted our Annual Spring
Conference the hardest of all of our programs, and its impact upon revenues
and expenses is worth noting. Attendance at the Conference declined about
plans a Conference, it does so many years in advance in order to gain
whatever price advantages are available. For example, ISPI commits to
renting blocks of rooms at the Conference hotel to make the package attractive
to attendees while, also, providing additional networking opportunities.
However, ISPI becomes responsible for the un-rented rooms and there were
many extra rooms available when people stayed home this year. That, in
itself, made the Annual Spring Conference unprofitable.
that eventuality early in FY02 and responded with a very vigorous effort
at expense reduction, re-negotiation of our commitments, and (on the upside)
drive to use our more diverse programs to sell to the specific needs of
our members. The results were remarkable: what could have easily have
been a half-million dollar dip into reserves, came in at less than one-third
of that projected loss. And, ISPI has paid every bill and kept every program.
attendance at the 2002 Fall Conference was the best ever and seats at
ISPIs HPT Institutes were in demand. A record number of professionals
attended the in-house, online, and publicly offered Principles and Practices
Institute. And, while new memberships showed a decline of about 40%, retention
remained strong. ISPI members stood by the organization and continued
to participate and support the Society on all levels.
the reality that ISPI stands today with a broader product blend than just
an Annual Spring Conference is the singular reason for weathering this
storm this well.
forward to FY03. The budget for the new year continues to be conservative.
An improvement in revenue is being forecasted because increased Conference
attendance is expected; travel is improving and, when viewed historically,
the lower Conference attendance in FY02 was an anomaly. Expenses will
continue to be very tightly managed and were capped based on FY02 actuals.
send some kudos to the leaders of this organization who responded to the
challenges thrown at ISPI this year. The stories about associations who
downsized or folded completely are abundant. Send those kudos to the ISPI
staff, to the Board and Committee Chairs, and to the committees. And,
help where you can: send in your renewals in a timely fashion, bring in
a new member, and stay in the Conference hotel in Boston. If the number
of conference proposals received for the 2003 Annual Spring Conference
is any indication, the Society feels that FY03 will be a rebound year!
by Carl Binder
examples of possible call center measures
in last months column prompted a flurry of reader responses, some
of which I will discuss next month. The next couple of columns will
also cover topics such as understanding bounce or variability
in ongoing results measures, and distinguishing between changes in levels
versus trends. This month, however, I want to encourage you to read
a recent Performance Improvement (PI) article, to view some 2002
GOT RESULTS? presentations, and to submit cases to the GOT RESULTS?
exhibit at ISPIs 41st
Annual International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo,
April 11-15 in Boston, MA.
Alan Ramias has written a very no-nonsense piece called Whats
All This Fuss About Measurement? in the October 2002 issue
of PI. His punch-line is that
[should] be routine, standard, not even an option, that is to say, kind
of boring. I couldnt agree more! When reports of results
measures become pervasive and routine in ISPIs publications
and presentations, this column and our other efforts to increase sharing
of results data will have achieved their objective.
GOT RESULTS? Presentations Now Online
After our successful GOT RESULTS? exhibit at the 2002 ISPI conference
in Dallas, Rick Battaglia, ISPIs Executive Director, asked if
we could make the presentations more widely available, to serve as examples
and encouragement for practitioners to measure and share results data.
With the support of April Davis, Senior Director of Publications, and
other ISPI staff, all available 2002
GOT RESULTS? Presentations are available on the ISPI website. Please
check them out, and follow up with the presenters if you like. By the
way, if you contributed to the 2002 GOT RESULTS? exhibit, but do not
see your presentation online, please send it to me in PDF format via
email by December 1, and we will post it with the others.
Presentations to GOT RESULTS? 2003
We are now requesting presentations for the 2003 GOT RESULTS? exhibit
at ISPIs Annual International Performance Improvement Conference
& Expo, April 11-15 in Boston. The submission
form can be found on the 2002 GOT RESULTS? site and provides details
for submitting a presentation for 2003. We ask that submissions be made
by email no later than January 6, 2003.
criterion is that each presentation summarize one or more performance
interventions or systems and include objective, quantitative measures
of behavior, accomplishments (job outputs), and/or business results
that an accountant or engineer would deem valid for making decisions.
The submission form provides further details for content, format, and
size of the exhibit presentations. Like last year, the presentations
will be displayed on tack boards in the exhibit hall for the entire
conference. Viewing presentations from last years GOT RESULTS?
you a good idea about the range of possible submissions.
last year, the purpose is to share results data from projects completed
by practitioners to illustrate what is possible and to encourage others
to collect objective results data for decision-making about performance
interventions and ongoing performance systems. If you want to discuss
details, or ask about possibilities, please contact Timm
Esque or me.
As homework for the next few columns, let me pose two questions
for your consideration: How do you tell (without statistics) whether
an apparent change in measured performance is due to a trend,
an incremental jump-up or jump-down, or simply a bounce
along a continuous, bumpy course of variability? And, what are the implications
of each of these three possibilities?
Ramias, L. (2002). Whats all this fuss about measurement? Performance
Improvement, 41(9), 13-15.
Carl Binder is a Senior Partner at Binder Riha Associates, a consulting
firm that helps clients improve processes, performance, and behavior
to deliver valuable results. His easy-to-remember e-mail address
and his companys website is www.Binder-Riha.com.
by Todd Packer
Welcome back to I-Spy, a
feature of PerformanceXpress that highlights relevant, interesting,
and useful websites for performance technologists. In my work, I often
use creative research techniques to uncover resources on the World Wide
Web that can help individuals and organizations make effective decisions
and achieve strategic goals. For this column, I hope to locate off-the-beaten-path
sites that can help you find similar thinkers, resources, work, new
ideas, and sometimes just plain old fun.
recap: Every month, three sites, one theme. While far from comprehensive,
hopefully these sites will spark readers to look further and expand
views about human performance technology (HPT). Please keep in mind
that any listing is for informational purposes only and does not indicate
an endorsement either by the International Society for Performance Improvement
are the general categories I use for the sites featured:
Links to professional associations, research, and resources that can
help refine and expand our views of HPT through connections with other
professionals and current trends.
Links to job listings, career development, volunteer opportunities,
and other resources for applying your individual skills.
Links to sites that are thought provoking, enjoyable, and refreshing
to help manage the stresses and identify new ideas for HPT.
for this months column is HPT Intelligence. What does using
the Internet say about your intelligence? According to Dictionary.com,
intelligence can be defined as 1. a. The capacity to acquire
and apply knowledge. b. The faculty of thought and reason. c. Superior
powers of mind... 2. An intelligent, incorporeal being, especially an
angel. Intelligenceintellectual, emotional, organizational,
and marketplaceis a critical capacity for all HPT professionals.
We are not alone in thislets improve performance intelligently
with some help from another society, another smart mind, and another
A visit to the website of The
Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals introduces several
resources for improving performance from external research. Fellow process
thinkers, the site describes Competitive Intelligence (CI) as, Effective
CI is a continuous process involving the legal and ethical collection
of information, analysis that doesnt avoid unwelcome conclusions,
and controlled dissemination of actionable intelligence to decision
makers. Check out the accessible job listings (Job Marketplace),
details on the positive impact of CI on performance (What is CI? F.A.Q.),
and upcoming events (Education and Events). Some access is limited to
members of SCIP, but the general site provides valuable general information
about another set of research professionals.
Thoughtful reader Guy Wallace alerts us to Donald Clarks unusually
named yet highly comprehensive ISD, training, and performance improvement
Dogs Bowl of Biscuits. A knowledgeable distribution specialist
at Starbucks Coffee Company in Washington state, Mr. Clark has compiled
a dizzying array of detailed resources, links, and articles on Training,
Leadership, Performance, and the ultimate performance improvement intelligence
tool, Coffee. HPT professionals may find particular value at Big Dogs
ISD Page (click on Training then ISD Manual) with diverse articles,
toolkits, checklists, and descriptions on instructional design, effective
training, and other aspects of a System Approach to Training (SAT).
Sometimes the quest for superior intelligence must take us into realms
where angels and performance technologists fear to tread. Luckily, you
can take a visit for inspiration, from the comfort of your ergonomically
designed keyboard, at the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administrations
picture of the day site. Every day features a new image, a
brief description with links for more information, and access to a vast
array of other resources to explore. Visit the Archive for
links to recent imagesmy 2002 favorites include October 18, August
21, and July 6. Until next month, enjoy your incorporeal, intelligent
explorations in cyberspace!
Todd Packer, Elliptical galaxy X-ray dude (June 17, my birthday)
he is not Internet trawling for ISPI, Todd Packer can be found improving
business, non-profit, and individual performance through research, training,
and innovation coaching as an independent practitioner based in Cleveland,
Ohio. He may be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
by Patrick Murphy, Stractics
article is a continuation of summary information
developed as a result of the focus group sessions conducted during the
2002 ISPI Annual International Performance Improvement Conference &
Expo in Dallas. As part of ISPIs Marketplace View 2002 Taskforce,
the sessions were structured to obtain direct and candid input from a
variety of constituent groups attending the conference. The ongoing efforts
of the taskforce are being used to better understand the needs of our
membership and our marketplace, and to use that information to ensure
that ISPI continues to provide outstanding products and services. Of the
five focus group sessions conducted, this article represents the last
of the session-specific summaries. As with all of the other sessions conducted,
the participants were highly participative and offered valuable information
to assist with the taskforce initiatives.
focus group was classified as HPT-Consultant-Manager & Individual
Contributor-Partner & Client. Participants in this session included:
Botke, CINOP, The Netherlands
Burkett, Lexington Associates Inc.
I. Kirstein, Sr. Associate, Christensen Roberts Solutions
Borysiak Fix, Instructional Designer, ALLTEL
J. Shellnut, PhD, Senior Training Manager, Carlson Marketing Group
from the Session
with each of the focus group sessions conducted, participants generally
praised the Society for taking a leadership position in the field of improving
human performance. Of course, as with any group of outspoken individuals,
the participants also offered suggestions where they felt the Society
had opportunities for improvement if it was to be considered the ideal
or best imaginable professional affiliation. Particular areas discussed
during this session included:
Chapters: Participants shared a variety of impressions in relation
to local chapters of the Society. Some participants had strong ties to
their local chapter and relied heavily on this relationship for networking
with other members, discussion topics, and guest speakers. It was noted
that participation at the local level provides the opportunity for members
to be involved in the Society in a much more tangible way than solely
at the annual conferences. Other opinions pointed to a lack of awareness
of where local chapters existed. It was generally agreed that additional
focus, support, and guidance from the Society in the formation and ongoing
activities of local chapters would be beneficial.
Content: The members of this session expressed the desire for additional
capability to perform research through the ISPI website than currently
available. While a wealth of information is provided through issues of
Performance Improvement, it does not necessarily address the need
to conduct topic-specific research quickly that the session participants
of Community: Being a member of a professional Society
where they had the ability to interact with other professionals with similar
interests, and expand their knowledge was expressed as an important requirement.
The variety of ideas discussed as helping to foster this sense of
education sessionsincluding those topic-specific as well as those
leading to certification
such as the annual conferencesbut including local chapter offerings
to identify and contact other members with specific expertise or backgrounds
in selected areas
with Higher Education: Alliances with institutions of higher education
was discussed as a way to increase the awareness of the Society within
the institutions themselves and to those individuals attending coursework
leading to careers in associated fields.
I had the
pleasure of facilitating two of the five focus group sessions during the
Dallas conference. Based on the input of the participants of all five
of the sessions, the Society now has firsthand input from a broad range
of constituents. Their input has greatly assisted the Society to better
understand a broad range of issues important to our marketplace. Look
for future articles in PerformanceXpress regarding the ongoing
work of the Marketplace View Taskforce.
ongoing efforts of the taskforce are being used to better understand
the needs of our membership and our marketplace, and to use that information
to ensure that ISPI continues to provide outstanding products and
by Roger Chevalier, CPT, ISPI Director of Information & Certification
is a wonderful quote from Sir Isaac Newton
that reminds us of the debt we have to those who came before us, If
I can see much further, its because I am standing on the shoulders
to acknowledge the giants that came before us in the new models
that we create, the articles and books that we write, and products that
we produce. Referencing the original work adds credibility to what we
create while acknowledging the original work from which we have developed
been a growing trend of adapting ideas and models from others and claiming,
and even copyrighting, them as original work. I guess this has come about
as a result of the need for product differentiation and securing a place
in the marketplace. But the same copyright laws used to protect these
new products are very often the ones that were trampled in the process.
also been a trend toward referencing secondary works, trusting an interpretation
rather than going back to the original to see what was actually said.
For example, nearly all psychology and management books list the five
levels of Maslows hierarchy of needs, usually citing a secondary
work rather than going back to the original. If you take the time to go
back to the original, you will find that Maslow identified seven levels
in his hierarchy of needs, including two that have been lost in nearly
all secondary references: the need for spirituality and the need for the
its time to research the original works, acknowledge where we have
borrowed from, and tell the world whose shoulders we are standing on.
By doing so, we are also upholding the Integrity Principle in the ISPI
Code of Ethics.
by LtCol. Joseph J. Thomas and Maj. Christian A. Nelson
The mission of a military instructional system is to determine
instructional needs and priorities, to develop effective and efficient
solutions, and to measure the results ensuring they meet the specified
statement, published in the August 1975 Interservice Procedures for
Instructional Systems Development: Executive Summary and Model (NAVEDTRA
106A), was one of the assumptions upon which the Center for Educational
Technology at Florida State University built its Instructional Systems
Development (ISD) model. Originally commissioned by the Army, responsibility
for this project transferred to the Interservice Committee for Instructional
Systems Development and its scope was broadened to include requirements
from the Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps. The ISD model was subsequently
adopted by the Marine Corps as the Systems Approach to Training (SAT)
model for developing and implementing all Marine Corps training and
education. Whether referred to as ISD or SAT, this 5-phased or stepped
model is a recognized standard governing the instructional process in
the private sector and within the Department of Defense.
of Marine Corps Training and Education
Annually, on average, the Corps assimilates more than 40,000 new enlisted
Marines and officers into its ranks. This represents a turnover of 25%
of the total end-strength of this 174,000-person organization. The result
is a Corps of Marines whose average age is just over 19 years, making
it the youngest of the four armed services. The training challenges
associated with this are obvious. As the customerthe
American taxpayerexpects the Corps to retain its edge as the worlds
premier force in readiness, training and educating this young force
is a top priority. The goal of Marine Corps training and education
is to develop effective and efficient instruction that maximizes on-the-job
performance and contributes directly to mission accomplishment.
The Marine Corps adopted the SAT process to assist schools and operational
units to assist users in identifying behaviors performed on the job;
in selecting those critical behaviors for which instruction is necessary;
in developing and conducting objective-based training; in evaluating
job performance; and finally in revising training programs that fail
to prepare Marines to meet job performance requirements.
In 1997, the Marine Corps embarked on a training modernization initiative
to address the demands of cyclical surges in student throughput and
to meet increased readiness and performance requirements. In the Marine
Corps, like most large organizations, training and performance are inextricably
linked, but causal connections are difficult to identify and quantify.
This modernization initiative focused on the infusion of instructional
technology, achieving balance between distance learning and traditional
resident instruction, and accelerating the development of human performance
solutions. By 1999, the Corps recognized the need to retool the SAT
process focusing on achieving training/performance solutions more rapidly
and decisively. In 2000, the Training Development System (TDS) was developed
and put in place to rapidly develop holistic training solutions that
are performance-oriented, standards-based, and technology-enhanced.
The TDS enables organizational leaders to set initial desired performance
parameters and objectives for each occupational field within the Corps.
By establishing initial parameters, all agencies responsible for training
and human performance development remain focused on a common goal. The
TDS is framed in the same five phases or steps of the SAT or ISD process.
The difference is that two key enablers have been purposely built into
the system: flexibility and the integration of instructional technology.
Decision makers at every level in the system are encouraged to bypass
or limit time intensive analytical procedures if training requirements
are obvious. Leaders are encouraged to accelerate, where feasible, design
and development procedures, getting initial versions of curricula in
place that can later be refined.
the TDS has incorporated two integration boards designed to streamline,
focus, and clearly articulate desired performance outcomes and blended
learning solutions. The Training Review Group (TRG) meets early
in the analysis phase to publish the training/performance development
plan for the occupational field under review. This initiating directive
is developed by senior leadership and focuses the training establishment
on performance and training requirements for the job field. The Integrated
Curriculum Design Board (ICDB) produces a holistic curriculum plan
leveraging the benefits of resident instruction, e-learning, and performance
and Readiness Program
Beginning in the late 1970s, work was initiated to produce the first
Marine Corps Individual Training Standard (ITS) to define the basic
skills required for Marines in each occupational specialty. Over a decade
later, the first ITS volume was published, enabling individual Marines
to train to measurable performance standards that were linked to their
units missions. As the ITS system matured, collective training
standards were developed that specified mission and functional area
proficiency standards for all units. Since 1997, the Corps has moved
toward a single system for defining and measuring both individual and
unit performance. The Marine Corps Training and Readiness (T&R)
Program was officially adopted in 2002 to provide the commander with
a building-block system that standardizes both individual and collective
training for each occupational field. T&R manuals tailor the training
effort to the unit mission and serve as training guides that provide
commanders an immediate assessment tool for determining individual and
collective combat readiness. At both the individual and collective levels,
the goal is to achieve and maintain a threshold level of combat readiness.
The Corps training modernization initiative is focused on accelerating
the ISD/SAT process, leveraging the power of instructional technologies,
while retaining a focus on performance-based training. The history of
warfare, institutional experience, and the wisdom of those who have
gone before, all confirm the direct correlation between training and
success on the battlefield. Effective combat units train as they intend
to fight and fight as they were trained. Marines base their future success
on the battlefield on this philosophy. Key to success is the implementation
of the Training Development System and the Training and Readiness Manual
Program. These modernization initiatives will guide the training and
education of present and future Marines well into the 21st
century ensuring that the Corps meets the Nations call to be the
total force in readiness!
Joseph J. Thomas, PhD, has served in a variety of training
and education positions to include C3 Instructor, Marine Aviation
Weapons and Tactics Squadron, Asst. Professor of Naval Science at
the University of Notre Dame, and Professor in the graduate school
of American Military University. His current assignment is the Head
of Training Management and Evaluation within the Corps Training
and Education Command.
Christian A. Nelson, MEd, has served in several training and education
billets over the past 20 years. In his current assignment, as the Curriculum
and Instruction Supervisor, he has spent the past three years developing
service-level training and performance policy and programs. He has also
recently led U.S. military contact teams to former Warsaw Pact countries
to assist their armed forces in the adoption and implementation of western
military training and performance systems. Christian may be reached
goal of Marine Corps training and education is to develop effective
and efficient instruction that maximizes on-the-job performance and
contributes directly to mission accomplishment.
Have you ever been disappointed by an Internet
page that seemed to contain
the information you wanted, but was too long to read or download, making
it simply not worth your time? If you answered yes, you must take a
moment to visit ISPIs 99
years ago, Sivasailam Thiagi Thiagarajan, CPT, came up with
a wonderful idea: the 99-second conference presentation. For the last
couple of years, Thiagi and Roger Addison, CPT, ISPIs Director
of HPT have co-chaired this special event at ISPIs Annual International
Performance Improvement Conference & Expo. More than 30 presenters
are invited to share their experience in 99 seconds and each presentation
includes a job aid that is shared with the audience. Like its conference
session counterpart, the online version of 99 seconds is short, to the
point, and provides a take-away. There is something for everyone.
Online continues to grow as new job aids are submitted and uploaded.
Check back often, and see what idea is being showcased!
this month include:
Aint Training, Harold Stolovitch, CPT and Erica Keeps, CPT
Review Analysis Worksheet, Kathleen S. Whiteside
Modeling, Guy W. Wallace, CPT
would like additional information about 99 Seconds Online, please contact
Roger at email@example.com.
The International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI)
is seeking an ISPI member who has the flexibility to take on
the commitment and responsibilities of Editor for Performance Improvement
looking for a member who can demonstrate an extensive knowledge of Human
Performance Technology (HPT), has a professional HPT network, and possesses
an editorial review ability. The Editor will be responsible for acquiring,
reviewing, and selecting manuscripts and will contribute suggestions
and ideas toward the editorial direction. The Editor will work with
authors and potential authors to maintain the highest standard of editorial
content and will work directly with the ISPI Senior Director of Publications,
who is responsible for all production and distribution. The Editor reports
to the Executive Director, who serves as Publisher of Performance
Improvement. The position requires a two-year commitment, commencing
in April 2003. The Editor will receive $10,000 a year as compensation
for the invested time and effort.
is published 10 times a year and is distributed to more than 6,000 members,
subscribers, and institutions. For an application and instructions,
or for questions regarding the position or the application process,
please contact April Davis, ISPI Senior Director of Publications, by
phone: 301.587.8570 x112; by fax: 301.587.8573; or by e-mail, firstname.lastname@example.org
The International Society for Performance Improvement
(ISPI) would like to congratulate the list of professionals below who
have taken advantage of the exemptions available during the grandparenting
period and received the designation of Certified Performance Technologist
(CPT) last month. Click here
for a full list of CPTs. Visit www.certifiedpt.org,
and apply today to receive your designation.
May, New Hampshire, USA
Wilcoxon, California, USA
Bodine, Georgia, USA
Kaminski, Georgia, USA
Johnson, California, USA
Bimburg, Michigan, USA
Smith, Illinois, USA
Munley, California, USA
Luketich, Texas, USA
Stebbins, Michigan, USA
Jarosz, Michigan, USA
International Society for Performance Improvement
(ISPI) has three special honorary awards that recognize outstanding individuals
and organizations for their significant contributions to human performance
technology and to the Society itself. The awards are the Thomas F. Gilbert
Distinguished Professional Achievement Award, the Distinguished Service
Award, and the Honorary Life Member Award. As done in the past, the membership
is asked to submit names of qualified individuals for consideration for
the Thomas F. Gilbert Distinguished Professional Achievement Award and the
Distinguished Service Award. If you are interested in nominating an ISPI
member, please email the following information to email@example.com:
telephone number, and email of nominee
and telephone number of nominator
supporting information for the nominee
recipients were Thomas F. Gilbert Distinguished Professional Achievement
Award: Dr. Richard E. Clark; the Distinguished Service Award: Timm J.
Esque; and the Honorary Life Member Award: Wellesley R. Rob
Foshay, PhD. The deadline to receive nominations is November 15, 2002.
For more detailed information on the guidelines used for selecting individuals
to receive these awards, please visit www.ispi.org
or click here.
Marketplace is a convenient way
to exchange information of interest to the performance improvement
community. Take a few moments each month to scan the listings for
important new events, publications, services, and employment opportunities.
Find additional resources for your training and performance improvement
initiatives at the ISPI
Online Buyers Guide and find the latest training and performance
jobs at the ISPI
Online Job Bank. If you would like to post information for our
readers, contact ISPI Director of Marketing, Dan Rudt at firstname.lastname@example.org
Evaluation: Tools and Techniques to Measure the Impact of Training
by Judith Hale, PhD, CPT. Based on over 25 years of experience working
with organizations to come up with better ways to evaluate programs,
this book provides a step-by-step process for evaluating training.
Aint Training by Harold D. Stolovitch, CPT and Erica
J. Keeps, CPT. Book tackles three universal questions: how do learners
learn, why do learners learn, and how do you make sure that learning
Seminars, and Workshops
Institutes, San Francisco Bay- Silicon Valley Area, January 2003
the Transition to Performance Improvement and Principles and Practices
of Performance Improvement. Three-day, intensive workshops designed
to improve your organizations workplace performance.
Newsletters, and Journals
Learning Officer Magazine
We have just delivered our debut issue! Let CLO deliver the experts
to you through Chief Learning Officer magazine, www.CLOmedia.com,
and the Chief Learning Officer Executive Briefings electronic
newsletter. Subscriptions are free to qualified professionals residing
in the United States.
Now in its 15th year! Dont miss another issue of
this scholarly journal that provides cutting-edge research and information
necessary for you to keep on top of the business of improving human
performance. Subscribe today!
is a leading on-line resource providing HR professionals with daily
news, articles, expert insights, discussion groups, and more. ICG
(Intellectual Capital Group), a division of HR.com, provides cutting-edge
research reports called RedBooks™ identifying and analyzing
HR trends and technologies.
ISPI is looking for Human Performance Technology (HPT) articles
(approximately 500 words and not previously published) for PerformanceXpress
that bridge the gap from research to practice (please, no product or service
promotion is permitted). Below are a few examples of the article formats
that can be used:
I wish I had thought of that Articles
- The Application
to the article, please include a short bio (2-3 lines) and a contact email
address. All submissions should be sent to email@example.com.
Each article will be reviewed by one of ISPIs on-staff HPT experts,
and the author will be contacted if it is accepted for publication. If
you have any further questions, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
to printer-friendly version of this issue.
free to forward ISPIs PerformanceXpress newsletter to your
colleagues or anyone you think may benefit from the information. If you
are reading someone elses PerformanceXpress, send your complete
contact information to email@example.com,
and you will be added to the PerformanceXpress emailing list.
(formerly News & Notes and Quick Read) is an ISPI member
benefit designed to build community, stimulate discussion, and keep you
informed of the Societys activities and events. This newsletter
is published monthly and will be emailed to you at the beginning of each
you have any questions or comments, please contact April Davis, ISPIs
Senior Director of Publications, at firstname.lastname@example.org.
1400 Spring Street, Suite 260
Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA