by Richard E. Clark, CPT
A major challenge for those who develop the human assets
in organizations is choosing from the bewildering array of performance
improvement products. Team-building, Myers-Briggs type profiling, empowerment,
web-based training, multimedia, corporate culture transformation, job
and work re-engineering, and management by storytelling are only a few
of the huge variety of products and services offered to help us manage
our opportunities and problems. New training and performance improvement
companies appear every day, offering just-in-time technologies that promise
to manage our knowledge and skills, motivate our people, and improve team
communication and efficiency.
Do any of
these things do what they promise? How do you pick and choose? Their proponents
claim they are working in successful organizations, that they provide
the most recent technology, and that they are based on the work of world-renowned
experts. If that is true, why do many of us notice little or no improvement
from some of these products?
increasingly complicated world of training and performance improvement,
what can you rely on to guide your decision-making process? One answer
is research. Just as a doctor needs the latest medical equipment and research
to deliver the best care to a patient, training and performance improvement
professionals need to equip themselves with the latest developments in
the field in order to better serve their clients. Research is uncovering
powerful truths about what works and what doesntguidelines
that affect how you do your job, what products you choose, and the programs
you support. For example, over the years, research has proven that:
designed or delivered training can actually cut productivity.
simply not true that poor training has no consequences. Bad training
can cause more problems than existed initially. One problem is that
it can cause the scrambling of previously well-organized memory for
a work-related topic. Therefore, people have a more difficult time remembering
the information after training than they did before. In other cases,
management team-building exercises have been found to increase destructive
competition between management groups in the same organization. These
negative results refute the belief that any training will produce at
least some positive results.
questionnaires or smile sheets often indicate the opposite
of what actually happened in a performance improvement program.
People often give very positive ratings to ineffective performance programs.
Reaction forms ask people what they liked the most. What they like,
however, is not always what helps them perform better. They may have
liked the training because of the ease with which it was applied or
the personality of the trainer. In these cases, people are affected
by the less important aspects of a program and may rate it highly even
if it made them less productive. Products that feel comfortable may
not be challenging our current paradigms enough. For example, research
has shown that training programs may receive high smile-sheet ratings
for client satisfaction, yet participants who are tested to see if they
learned the course content show no learning gains.
can also happen. A successful program can be judged to be ineffective
because it asks participants to change something very basic about their
beliefs, expectations, and behavior. This counterintuitive result occurs,
in part, because some interventions that make us more productive also
challenge our comfortable routines and our mental models of the world.
This change process can make some of us uncomfortable. Yet, solving
significant problems often requires change.
experts design and present training in their area of expertise, they
often give wrong information or fail to give complete information.
knowledge and skills of experts, including the way that they make decisions
and solve problems, are automatic. They cannot teach what they are not
aware of doing, even if they are committed to passing on what they do
so well. Worse yet, experts are not aware that most of their knowledge
and almost all of their skills are unconscious. However, research shows
that almost all of them believe that they are giving accurate and complete
information to trainees. Since most training in organizations is based
on content derived from interviewing experts, this is a major problem.
the performance of work teams is evaluated as a group, rather than evaluating
individual members, individual productivity declines significantly.
researched phenomenon, called social loafing, occurs when group members
reduce their individual effort, believing that their contribution will
not be missed. It also appears that when managers add more members to
groups to increase their output, individual performance falls even farther
if group members do not believe that their individual contributions
are being assessed.
empowerment strategies can have both positive AND negative effects.
people are more motivated when empowerment strategies allow them to
participate in deciding how they do a job. These strategies are called
by various names including Quality Circles, Leaderless Teams, and Self-Directed
Work Groups. However, in some organizational cultures, giving people
control of how they do their jobs has been shown to backfire and cause
lower motivation and increased employee turnover. In some organizational
cultures, people are more motivated by a strong managerial presence,
and empowerment is seen as disruptive and interfering with an effective
competency-based approaches do not work.
performance improvement vendors now emphasize competency-based
systems. Advocates of competency-based systems analyze your operation
and suggest performance competencies necessary to ensure success. A
possible outcome would be to require that people be able to: Manage
profit and loss, control expenses, and set and manage financial goals.
Who could disagree? If high-level and abstract competencies help you
get support for the specific work goals that drive performance, then
they are positive. However, if general goals replace concrete, specific,
and timely goals, then they are both distracting and destructive. The
competencies you need from people will change as business goals change.
General competencies are only the beginning and cannot serve as adequate
work goals for teams or individuals.
has a real impact on how training and performance improvement products
should be designed and implemented. Taking advantage of this research
means increased certainty that the decisions you make about performance
improvement will be the right ones.
E. Clark, EdD, CPT is a professor of educational psychology at the
University of Southern California (USC). He previously served as Division
Head for USCs Educational Psychology and Technology Department
and as Director of USCs Professional Studies and Community Programs.
He is the 2002 recipient of the prestigious Thomas F. Gilbert Distinguished
Professional Achievement Award from the International Society for
Performance Improvement. Richard may be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Excerpted from Turning
Research into Results: A Guide to Selecting the Right Performance Solutions,
by Richard E. Clark and Fred Estes.
is uncovering powerful truths about what works and what doesnt
guidelines that affect how you do your job, what products you
choose, and the programs you support.
by Carol Haig, CPT and Roger Addison, CPT
This month, TrendSpotters is pleased
to feature Edgar Necochea and Rick Sullivan of JHPIEGO,
a non-profit group affiliated with Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore,
MD. JHPIEGO works to improve the health of women and families throughout
the world. Structured like an external consulting organization, JHPIEGO
works with stakeholders, such as the ministries of health or education
at the country level, and with healthcare providers in clinics and hospitals
at the local level. At any given time, JHPIEGO is at work in 20-30 different
low-resource countries. Edgar may be reached at email@example.com,
and Rick may be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.
countries, the health reform movement is bringing widespread change
to healthcare and profoundly altering many aspects of medical practitioners
work and the services their patients receive. Three significant trends
are evidence of the sweeping changes the health reform movement brings.
low-resource settings internationally are moving toward a more integrated,
preventive, and holistic approach to medical care. Increasingly, the
focus is on the individual, the family, and the environment with an emphasis
on the clients (patients) preferences, participation in the
wellness process, and satisfaction with medical services.
healthcare in low-resource countries is moving toward a more private-like
business model, with greater diversification in financing and service
delivery. To date, the management and operation of facilities and health
systems have been largely government-funded and operated. This trend gives
hospitals autonomy in how they are managed, decentralizes services, privatizing
some while outsourcing others. The changing business model could save
costs, increase efficiencies, provide greater coverage in basic health
packages, and serve larger populations.
financing has resulted in a greater focus on health outcomes and performance.
Previously, funding was based 100% on historical budget trends. While
most funding allocations are still calculated this way, an increasing
portion is now based on goal achievement. Even healthcare funding from
agencies such as the World Bank is goal-driven.
of These Trends on Performance
health reform process affects organizational systems and methods of service
delivery. Historically, healthcare in low-resource countries focused on
vertical programs such as polio immunizations, family planning, or malaria
prevention. Today, governments are requesting integrated global healthcare
packages instead. Such changes require a systemic approach to the design
and delivery of healthcare and the training of providers beyond medical
skills to support an integrated and holistic approach to healthcare.
healthcare stakeholders recognize that human resource productivity is
influenced heavily by factors that go beyond knowledge and skills, such
as basic drugs, supplies, and equipment. Scarcity of supplies has a huge
impact on provider performance. All resources, from skilled provider personnel
to basic medical supplies such as drugs and dressings, must be available
to deliver healthcare. The goal is to produce complete units of care,
and this can only be met when there is a more balanced allocation of resources
monetary and non-monetary incentives are now being built in at both the
organizational and provider levels in efforts to ensure consistent quality
performance standards, with their roots in evidence-based medicine, are
becoming common, as are the mechanisms to determine that the standards
are met. Evidence-based medicine has its roots in the history of medical
education where much information has been presented as fact with
no known supporting research. Indeed, some of these facts were
based on assumption or even myth. Today, educators are going back to find
the evidence before teaching the facts. This makes performance
standards, and their measurements, more accurate for providers.
business models are put in place for healthcare, budgets and financial
tracking become critical and are being tied to key indicators from the
organizational level all the way to the individual provider. In several
countries, including Brazil, there are performance incentives for productivity
at the national and state level, with specific healthcare targets. Now
the challenge becomes one of balancing these efficiencies with quality
of These Trends on JHPIEGOs Healthcare Delivery
response to these trends, JHPIEGO has broadened its focus from training
to performance improvement. The programs stress performance factors such
as motivation, incentives, and recognition, with supporting models built
for the transfer of training and the linking of training to the local
is working on evidence-based performance standards for health service
delivery. Today, it stresses outputs and outcome standards using a competency-based
methodology and extensive evaluation and follow-up to track client satisfaction.
performance standards for service delivery functions reflects a systemic
and holistic approach to healthcare provision. JHPIEGO understands that
it is critical to pay attention to the most basic of support system needs.
For example, chlorine is an important supply item in an infection prevention
program. However, all the training about how to use chlorine in infection
prevention is pointless if there is no chlorine in the supply room.
In its current
work, JHPIEGO demonstrates the 10
Performance Improvement Standards required for ISPIs Certified
Performance Technologist designation, from its focus on results to
its systematic evaluations of programs. Learn more about JHPIEGOs
performance improvement activities at its ReproLine
you have any suggestions about trends driving performance in todays
business environment that you feel would be of interest to the PerformanceXpress
readership, please contact Carol Haig at email@example.com
or Roger Addison at firstname.lastname@example.org.
(PI), a process pioneered in industry, is now helping to strengthen reproductive
health organizations. PI focuses on meeting the needs of service providers
and other staff members. When programs enable and inspire staff to do their
best, the quality of care improves.
the right knowledge and skills to do a good job, but they also need to
know what is expected of them and whether they are meeting expectations.
They need to have good working conditions, strong support from their organization,
and incentives to perform well.
do not perform well, there usually are a number of reasons. The PI approach
can help organizations identify and address them all. Performance improvement
is useful in resource-poor settings because it focuses attention on often-neglected
causes of performance problems, such as unclear expectations or infrequent
feedback, that need not be costly to correct. Performance improvement
is used primarily to solve problems, but it can also help to set up a
new job or help staff members take on new tasks or adjust to new standards.
Reproductive health care organizations apply performance improvement in
a process that is carried out by stakeholderthe staff members, clients,
managers, and others who are affected by a performance problem or are
interested in solving it. In turn, stakeholders usually need help from
facilitatorsstaff members or consultants who have training or experience
with performance improvement. The PI process is comprehensive, beginning
with research and ending with evaluation of solutions:
the institutional context of the performance problem and foster agreement
on the objectives of the PI process.
or describe the performance gap.
the root causes of the performance gap and link them to performance
factors, such as incentives or knowledge and skills.
interventions that address the root causes.
and evaluate performance.
improvement encourages use of evidence-based best practices.
In place of trial and error, it offers a systematic approach. Instead
of guessing or jumping to conclusions about the reasons for poor performance,
managers can use analytical techniques. For the tendency to use familiar
solutions, the PI process substitutes closely reasoned links between root
causes, performance factors, and solutions.
with a pilot project in 1998, reproductive health organizations have used
the PI process to:
to demands by clients for improved reproductive health services (Dominican
why providers are not following guidelines for infection prevention
despite their training (Ghana);
national needs assessments for reproductive health care, examine organizational
performance problems, and decide on priorities (Armenia, Burkina Faso,
Nigeria, and Tanzania);
standards of care and help clinics meet the standards for licensing
or accreditation (Guatemala and Honduras);
decentralize health services (Tanzania);
barriers faced by community midwives (Yemen); and
incentives for private providers to counsel clients better about family
planning and to provide services (India).
improvement is inclusive. It empowers and encourages people to look beyond
causes of job problems that they can do little or nothing about and to
take into their own hands the task of improving services. Staff members,
supervisors, clients, and community members work together to assess needs
and find solutions. When necessary, they can seek help from experts in
communication, logistics, management, and training.
improvement promises to be a powerful addition to the quality improvement
methods available to reproductive health programs. It can help solve performance
problems with well-conceived solutions that lead to more productive and
satisfied workers providing better reproductive health care for more satisfied
serves two audiences. The first chapter is an overview for managers who
will make the decision to use Performance improvement and need to know
the fundamentals, costs, and expected results. The rest of the report
details each step of the process, tools, and techniques for readers who
may become PI facilitators. For a full copy of the report, visit: http://www.jhuccp.org/pr/j52edsum.shtml.
Reprinted with permission. Published by the Population Information Program,
Center for Communication Programs, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg
School of Public Health, 111 Market Place, Suite 310, Baltimore, Maryland
21202, USA, Volume XXX, Number 2, Spring 2002, Series J, Number 52, Family
Performance improvement (PI) is a process that helps organizations
create the conditions for high employee productivity. It [PI] has
helped to enhance quality of care, encourage collaboration among reproductive
health organizations, and identify priorities for program development.
and QBInternationals Resident Mad Scientist (a.k.a. Director of
Research and Development) Sivasailam Thiagi Thiagarajan has
created another interactive game designed especially for the readers of
reads each issue of PerformanceXpress. He wants to reward other
dedicated readers of ISPIs online newsletter. Therefore, he has
created an interactive tic-tac-toe game based on the contents of the September
issue of PerformanceXpress.
game by visiting:
find a 3x3 grid with topics selected from last months PerformanceXpress.
When you click on any of the nine boxes, a question related to the topic
pops up. Type a short answer in the text box. If your answer is correct,
you will see a big X on the box; if it is wrong, you will see a big O.
Continue playing by clicking on other boxes with other topics. If you
occupy three boxes in a straight line with Xs, you win. If you end up
with three boxes in a straight line with Os, you lose. But dont
give up, because you can play this addictive game repeatedly. To add to
your excitement, you are operating under a time limit. If you want more
excitement, you can choose a higher difficulty level. Click on the ?
for instructions on how to play the game at the tougher levels.
a hint: Review the September issue of PerformanceXpress
before playing this game.
by Jeanne Farrington, ISPI Director
long as people must learn new things
or companies want to improve performance, there will likely be employment
for performance consultants, instructional designers, organization development
consultants, and other performance improvement professionals. While it
is true that companies sometimes cut more deeply into their performance
improvement staffs when they decide to reduce their workforce, it is also
true that our skills are often readily transferred from one context to
an eye toward the future, then, means acknowledging that we may someday
change our job, the focus of our work, or the industry in which we work.
These changes may be our choiceto take advantage of a new interest
or opportunity. Or, they may be the result of choices made by our employers
or changes that occur in an industry as a whole. In either case, changing
jobs usually means new requirements for knowledge, skills, education,
or experience. Planning ahead and constantly improving what we can offer
potential employers can instill confidence and perhaps reduce the time
between one job and the next one.
employment climate is such that there are fewer jobs than applicants,
it can be difficult to land a job in an unfamiliar context that requires
new skills. Employers may want to find someone who has worked in their
corner of their particular industry, with the same kind of clients or
audience, and with similar problems to solve. For example, if you have
not specialized in management training for insurance companies, a potential
employer in that industry might wonder if you have the experience necessary
to provide learning solutions for that audiences particular needs.
The hiring managers may not realize, and it may be difficult to convince
them, that human performance technology and instructional design are robust
problem-solving methodologies that can be applied in many different contexts
and with a variety of clients or audiences.
If the question
is, How do I stay employable in this sometimes volatile field?
then part of the answer is to develop a broad range of basic skills as
well as special skills and experience with different methodologies, content
areas, and audiences. Sadly, some people in our field postpone their own
development until some later time when they are not so busy.
This can be a recipe for disaster when one is suddenly forced to make
a job change.
many opportunities for improving our skills: the HPT
local chapter presentations, workshops, publications,
and networking with our peers. Taking advantage of these and other opportunities
for learning and development can make all the difference when you decide
to make a change or you find that the decision has been made for you.
is rich and rewarding, producing results that can make a huge difference
to individuals as well as to the companies where we work. Still, we must
be nimble and ready to make a change at any time.
by Carl Binder
past columns Ive asked readers to send me measures
they use or to pose challenging measurement problems for discussion.
Ive not received any responses to this request, so to prime the
pump, Ill suggest some measures from one type of organization
in which I work: the customer call center. Perhaps this will prompt
others to submit their own illustrative measures.
are typically data-rich, often measuring performance via automated systems
along with customer satisfaction surveys and call quality monitoring.
The following list is by no means complete, nor perhaps the best list
of measures one can use in a call center. Instead, it is meant to illustrate
that we can measure at multiple levels in fairly straightforward ways.
Because the underlying philosophy of this column is that we can focus
measurement on things whose occurrence we can count, those familiar
with call center measurement might find that Ive transformed familiar
measures in unfamiliar ways. I would like to persuade you that making
everything countable is a powerful way to enable data-based decisions,
and to allow precise quantification and communication of measures with
the least amount of interpretation. This column is the first of several
devoted to that goal.
of Business Results
call centers (e.g., those that handle incoming calls) do not produce
revenues, but instead incur costs. Business resultsthe value a
call center contributes to the organizationmight therefore focus
on customer satisfaction and cost efficiency. Useful measures might
of customers who rate service at each level in a rating scale
in dollars per customer problem solved
of seconds per call that customers must wait to speak with a representative
of calls handled within an acceptable wait time (e.g., 20 seconds)
and number of calls not handled within that time
of Job Outputs (Accomplishments)
call centers collect many measures of job outputs, both quality and
productivity measures that might include:
handled per hour
per hour (when problems are not solved on first call)
of calls rated by monitors as meeting specific quality criteria, and
number not meeting the criteria
of Behavior and Learning
measures of behavior and learning during new-hire training might include:
of practice (flash) cards per minute to which a trainee
can respond with correct facts, service codes, or other factoid
information, and number of incorrect responses
bits of information found or actions taken per minute using online
systems, in response to prompts from a practice buddy, and number
of multiple choice questions selected correctly, incorrectly, and
skipped per minute on a paper or online quiz
of learning demands that we assess a change or trend in behavior
over time. It requires repeated measures of behaviors, ideally
at least once per day during the training program, until trainees achieve
mastery criteria (e.g., 60 per minute correct with no errors on cards;
5-10 per minute correct with no errors finding information online).
per Unit of Time
these examples involve countable units. To obtain measures useful for
deciding whether results are improving, maintaining, or getting worse,
each can be measured repeatedly per unit of time, e.g., per minute,
per hour, per week, per month. With such repeated measures, it is possible
to see trends and variability, topics we will address in the next column.
examples of possible call center measures, see an article by Lee Sweeney,
an experienced call center manager and me, published last year in Performance
we will go into more detail about making sense of trends and variability,
and how that can be helpful for improving performance.
C., & Sweeney, L. (2002, February). Building
fluent performance in a customer call center.
Performance Improvement, 41(2), 29-37.
Carl Binder is a Senior Partner at Binder Riha Associates, a consulting
firm that helps clients improve processes, performance, and behavior
to deliver valuable results. His easy-to-remember e-mail address
and his companys website is www.Binder-Riha.com.
+ Dialogue = Value
Visual posters and dialogue with a colleague add up to a valuable Performance
Gallery! Plan now to participate in the 2003 Performance Gallery during
ISPIs 41st Annual International Performance Improvement Conference
& Expo, April 11-15 in Boston, MA. Proposals are due October
14, 2002. Find out more about this unique opportunity to share your
projects, research, models, job aids, and HPT success.
the article in the August PerformanceXpress: Participate
in the 2003 Performance Gallery.
and download the submission criteria and application form from the
ISPI website: www.ispi.org.
The link can be found from Conference Plus in the left menu
bar. Then, select 41st Annual International Performance Improvement
Conference & Exposition, and scroll down to the last section to select
about the 2003 Performance Gallery may be sent to Michelle Katz, email@example.com
or Marilyn Spatz, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Awards of Excellence
Award of Excellence program is underway! Submit your ideas, innovations,
programs, or training tools by the October 25, 2002 deadline,
and you or your company could be on the way to earning the recognition
you deserve. For complete instructions and Award of Excellence submission
packets, click here
or visit www.ispi.org.
are interested in serving on the 2003 Awards of Excellence Committee
as an actual evaluator for the various award categories, please contact
Ellen Kaplan, ISPI Senior Director of Meetings at 619.224.4900 for more
is recruiting volunteers for the 41st
Annual International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo
in Boston, MA from April 10-15, 2003. In exchange for your help monitoring
full-day workshops, concurrent sessions, or assisting at the registration
desk, ISPI will waive your registration fee.
35 volunteers will be recruited and special consideration will be given
to those who may find it particularly difficult to pay the registration
fee, in particular full-time students and/or unemployed practitioners.
are willing to attend pre-assigned sessions and/or workshops, are interested
in meeting and assisting other conference attendees, and want to contribute
to your professional Society, send your name, mailing address, phone,
fax, and email address to: email@example.com.
Please indicate your interest in serving as a volunteer for conference
sessions or workshops or assisting at the registration desk. ISPI waives
the conference registration fees for all conference volunteers, however,
volunteers will be responsible for their travel, hotel, and other costs
associated with attending the conference. Volunteers are assigned on
a first-come, first-served basis. You will be contacted sometime this
month regarding your assignment.
by John Amarant, CPT
morning I received a framed certificate
from the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) proclaiming
that I am a Certified Performance Technologist (CPT). My former law partners
still shake their heads, wondering what could possibly have gone wrong with
their errant colleague. Not only have I turned my back on their sacred New
Mexico Bar Association, but Im also a member of the (its damned
hard to get into) California Bar Association, as well.
of a professional always causes a little uproar. Nobody rushes to have
others judge their work. Indeed, in the legal profession its called
the practice of law because there are so many possible solutionsno
solution is the right one if it does not deliver the right results. However,
some solutions work quicker than others; are more economical; or are more
eleganti.e., afford the client greater options or are more robust
over time. For centuries, certification of lawyers has consisted of simply
issues identification and an ability to argue the rule of
law for such issues.
for performance technologists requires not only the knowledge but also
a demonstration/application of that knowledge to deliver results. But,
there is something that attracts me to this ISPI certificatethe
potential of the technology itself. Unlike the legal profession where
the benefit of the license to practice is limited to an exclusive community,
the ISPI certificate symbolizes an organization that is seeking to use
its technology in an inclusive manner.
to consulting began when a client asked me to work on a large corporate
alignment project. During that time, I gained an appreciation for a wholly
different avenue for bringing about changes that people can maintain long
after the change agent departs. More recently, I was introduced to ISPI
and became acquainted with a range of professionals striving to cobble
together a huge body of knowledge for the purpose of improving the results
delivered by people working together.
ways, the signposts for this journey operate as they do in the legal world
(a few basic principles and a wide range of applications and constructs
to meet situations), but it has some very fundamental differences. The
most glaring difference is the monopoly enjoyed by the courts and its
body of court officers (i.e., lawyers). I will be disappointed if the
CPT comes to be used to exclude others from learning this wonderful technology
and spreading it. But I do not think that is likely so long as the emphasis
is on the promotion of the technology and the results for the client.
The real risk to the acceptance of certification is two-fold.
dont like to have their work scrutinized. If certification is
going to be successful, people have to be willing to embrace itperhaps
as a badge of honor that demonstrates a willingness to listen to advice
or feedback, to learn and essentially to walk the talk.
critics cite the lack of a common understanding of the principles of
performance improvement as the reason for not certifying performance
technologists. At first blush, this argument has some merit if we accept
that performance technology is a limited body of knowledge. But, what
if we are only beginning to understand this field as a science? A common
grasp on the meaning of the principles may not be reached within our
lifetimes. In some ways, this criticism of certification is akin to
proposing that we stop licensing doctors until the results of the Genome
Project are understood. As a field, performance improvement has exploded
enormously in the 40 years that the Society has been in existence, and
that development will only accelerate over the next 40 yearsprovided
certification is not used to control the development and application
of the technology.
the attraction of this technology is that its most fundamental premise
is so inclusivewe start with the desired result. There are a range
of possible solutions and interventions, but our job is to help the client
select the most suitable solution and get them there. Toward that end,
I may work with lawyers, economists, accountants, marketing people, information
technologists, engineers, and host of others who are necessary to achieve
the clients desired results. In working with these other professionals,
I am able to demonstrate how the technology can be integrated with their
approaches to the solution. Any one of these professionals could choose
to integrate performance technology into their businessand in that
way begin to bring about significant reform.
ISPI recognizes the professionals who have taken advantage of the exemptions
available during the grandparenting period and received the CPT designation.
Below is a list of the newest recipients. Click here
for a full list. Visit www.certifiedpt.org,
and apply today to receive your designation.
H., Rieger, CPT, gedasUSA Inc, Michigan, USA
Matzner, CPT, CDPHP, New York, USA
Brandenburg, CPT, Wayne State University, Michigan, USA
Schwinn, CPT, Focus on Performance, Kansas, USA
Riley, CPT, General Physics Corporation, Maryland, USA
Lucas, CPT, Training Partners Plus Inc, Illinois, USA
Cornelssen, CPT, Scientific Atlanta, Inc, Georgia, USA
H. Johnson, CPT, Zen Consulting, Texas, USA
Currier, CPT, Niagara Mohawk Power Corp, New York, USA
Benjamin, CPT, Johnson Controls Inc, Wisconsin, USA
- Ann Gee,
CPT, Carlson Marketing Group, Michigan, USA
Giere, CPT, The Working Force Inc, Wisconsin, USA
Galbraith, CPT, Microsoft Corporation, Washington, USA
Maloney, CPT, Electronic Data Systems, Michigan, USA
Topf, CPT, Management Development Intl Inc., Iowa, USA
Davani, CPT, General Physics Corporation, Maryland, USA
Seare, CPT, Genetech Inc, California, USA
- Jay J.
Spitulnik, CPT, Massachusetts, USA
Lawley, CPT, Hewlett-Packard Co, Texas, USA
Ratcliff, CPT, Ratcliff Consultants, California, USA
Krain, CPT, US Navy, Illinois, USA
- Ann Marie
Keech, CPT, AMK Training Solutions Inc, Virginia, USA
Boswarva, CPT, Ability Consultants Inc, New York, USA
Koenig, CPT, Ability Consultants Inc, New York, USA
Villachica, CPT, The Cognitive Performance Works, Colorado, USA
Nunes, CPT, HUMANPERSI, Portugal
Russell, CPT, ANDRULIS-PTI, Virginia, USA
Locke, CPT, Field Training Associates, Michigan, USA
Whiteside, CPT, Romie & Company, Illinois, USA
- Guy W.
Wallace, CPT, EPPIC Inc, Illinois, USA
Johnson, CPT, Jim Beam Brands Company, Kentucky, USA
Wilson, CPT, State Farm Insurance Companies, Illinois, USA
Thompson, CPT, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, Pennsylvania, USA
Gough, CPT, Collins & Aikman, Michigan, USA
Robbins, CPT, Impressionist Management Inc, Illinois, USA
Amarant lives in the San Francisco Bay Area and associates with a
number of consulting firms including Vanguard Consulting, Inc. He
has worked on numerous change implementation projects in the US and
Europeparticularly the UKwith demonstrated results in
the transportation, telecommunications, publishing, and information
technology industries. He may be reached at JAmarant@aol.com.
by Dan Rudt, ISPI Director of Marketing
you attend summer camp as a child?
Did you have to swim with a buddy? I dont know about you,
but my answers are yes and yes.
back, I think the buddy system was a great invention. It not only
saved lives, it built trust and partnership, as well. As campers, we had
to swim near a designated buddy at all times. When the lifeguard blew
a whistle, we had to stop what we were doing, find our buddy nearby, grab
his or her hand, and hold both our hands up high above the water.
you to find a buddy for our multi-event, 41st
Annual International Performance Improvement Conference & Exposition:
Lessons in Leadership. Join us in Boston, MA on April 10-15, 2003,
for workshops, institutes, a conference, and exposition, all devoted
to improving workplace performance through systematic, measurable, and
for education, participation, and networking with performance improvement
experts such as
- Sam Geist,
Acclaimed Author of Would You Work for You?
C. Wilton, PhD, Global Strategy & International Marketing Expert
be happy to know that our attendees give the conference very high marks.
raved about the 2002 ISPI Annual Meeting
- 7 of
8 said the conference addressed topics and skills of value on the job.
- 7 of
8 said they would recommend the event to others.
are some of the terms our attendees used to describe the event
The sessions were of the highest caliber.
exhilarating and stimulating!
a wonderful experience.
all my expectations!
About That Buddy
the overwhelmingly positive reaction from attendees, we feel we should
do everything we can to introduce, or re-introduce, more of our colleagues
to our annual meeting. That is why we are making a generous special offer.
When you register for the full conference at the member or delegate rate
you may also register a colleague (a.k.a. buddy) for only $200provided
your colleague has not attended an ISPI annual conference in the
past three years.
is your chance to be a hero. When you register, think of a colleague from
your organization, chapter, university, client organization, or an acquaintance
in the field who may not have experienced a recent ISPI conference. Offer
that person an opportunity to save hundreds of dollars while benefiting
from the premier educational event in workplace performance improvement.
forget to tell your colleague what attendees say about the conference
opened my eyes to the larger world of performance
so many useful activities going on.
networking opportunities were marvelous.
people to interact and discuss.
to meet and learn from the best in the field.
like Id stepped into the big leagues.
the value of the conference to their employers:
was directly translated into business-relevant recommendations and applications.
I was able to make an immediate connection between the subject and
my practice. I feel confident in guaranteeing a return on
[my employers] investment.
whom you can invite to register with you. Like the buddy system
in summer camp, your thoughtfulness will build trust, partnership, and
for this special offer is February 10, 2003. Dont wait for
the lifeguards whistle. Find a buddy now and be ready to swim with
your colleagues in a river of outstanding performance improvement education,
networking, interaction, discussion, and practical application.
You Like To Participate?
you would like to invite a colleague, do not hesitate to let me know.
Send me a note at firstname.lastname@example.org. When
we mail event brochures later this fall, we will be happy to send you
an extra brochure that you can give to a colleague. Or, we would be happy
to mail information directly to someone you think would be interested.
Let me know, also, if you would like to help us spread the word about
this terrific offer to others in your organization, chapter, or other
group. They are sure to thank you for it.
you register for the full conference at the member or delegate rate
you may also register a colleague (a.k.a. buddy) for only $200provided
your colleague has not attended an ISPI annual conference in
the past three years.
by Todd Packer
back to I-Spy,
a feature of PerformanceXpress that will highlight relevant,
interesting, and useful websites for performance technologists. In my
work, I often use creative research techniques to uncover resources
on the World Wide Web that can help individuals and organizations make
effective decisions and achieve strategic goals. For this column, I
hope to locate off-the-beaten-path sites that can help you find similar
thinkers, resources, work, new ideas, and sometimes just plain old fun.
recap: Every month, three sites, one theme. While far from comprehensive,
hopefully these sites will spark readers to look further and expand
views about human performance technology (HPT). Please keep in mind
that any listing is for informational purposes only and does not indicate
an endorsement either by the International Society for Performance Improvement
are the general categories I use for the sites featured:
Links to professional associations, research, and resources that can
help refine and expand our views of HPT through connections with other
professionals and current trends.
Links to job listings, career development, volunteer opportunities,
and other resources for applying your individual skills.
Links to sites that are thought provoking, enjoyable, and refreshing
to help manage the stresses and identify new ideas for HPT.
for this column is Branding HPT. Whats in a name? The importance
of brand identity affects the ability of individuals and
organizations, including ISPI, to get the word out about the benefits
of HPT. These sites can offer some ideas as you strive to improve your
messagesto the international business community, to your audiences
of learners, and to...uh...the invading hordes of the Dark Lord Sauron.
The International Advertising Association (IAA) (Global
Best Practices). The Global Society for Performance Improvement?
This essay highlights best practices in the marketing communications
industry in 2000 with intriguing implications for performance technologists
in multinational arenas, including issues of knowledge transfer, emotional
equity, and digitization. The site also includes information on the
association, contests/awards, and related Internet resources. IAA describes
itself as A Global and Grass Roots Strategic Partnership of Successful
a good one from San Diego State University, the Encyclopedia
of Educational Technology. How about The International Society
for Metacognitive Andragogy? Learn about these HPT-related ideas
at this site. Click on Table of Contents for the links to various articles,
some with multimedia. Brief essays highlight key concepts in educational
technology, from Human Performance Technology to Measurement Scales
to Hypnopaedia. General categories include Analysis, Implementation,
Evaluation, and others. The Encyclopedia of Educational Technology
is a collection of short multimedia articles on a variety of topics
related to the fields of instructional design and education and training.
Authors are graduate students, professors, and others who contribute
Middle-Earth Name Generator. Orkish name for the International Society
for Performance Technology: Ghazhâk the Abominable. This name
is for both genders. Hmm. Kind of catchy, no? If you would like to see
how you (or your project, team, company, etc.) might fare in the Tolkien
universe, hop over to this fun and informative site, type in your name
and discover variations in the various languages of Middle-Earth. So
until next time, surf in HPT fellowship! Dûrbbag the Drooler
Listings above are for informational purposes only, and do not indicate
an endorsement either by Todd Packer or ISPI.
Packer is an independent consultant providing research, coaching, writing,
and training in organizational development, creative problem-solving,
and stress management. He seeks to improve performance through dynamic
new approaches to research and creativity at work. Please contact Todd
with your feedback, comments, and ideas at email@example.com.
For more information, visit www.toddpacker.com.
Kelly R. Smith
I enjoyed the experience of moderating
the Enterprise-Manager-ISD-Client focus group at the 2002 International
Performance Improvement Conference & Expo in Dallas this past April.
It was beneficial, not only because I believe the Marketplace View Taskforce
will result in an improved ISPI, but because it made me think about
what I would like from my affiliation with ISPI as well as what I can
provide as an active member of the Society. This article will highlight
the glowing praise for the Society as well as some targeted areas
for improvement provided by the group.
The focus group consisted of HPT members in the Enterprise-Manager-ISD-Client
segment. Participants in this session included:
Lee Parker, Project Manager II, Bank One Corporation
A. DiToto, Training Manager, Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow
F. Galbraith, CPT, Performance Improvement Program Manager, Microsoft
C. Nichols, CPT, Performance Technology Manager, BWXT Pantex
the participants viewed the Society positively. When asked to assess
ISPI on a scale from 1 to 5, and the participant rating averaged 3.33.
When asked to compare ISPI with other professional associations they
were affiliated with, nearly all participants rated ISPI higher.
While not a bad rating, it did leave room for improvement.
things the participants indicated were strengths of the organization
models, methods, and products: Participants shared that whether
or not you have an academic bias, its good to know that some
work has gone into it and not just listening to someones opinion.
HPT Model: Participants liked that they could look to ISPI to
help them show the world (especially their bosses!) that often performance
problems take more than just training to solve.
forgetting about the little guy:
A participant liked that at ISPI, whether you are with a very large
company or a consultant with a small firm, you find things that you
can relate to.
were extremely open to sharing their opinions about where they would
like to see changes in the Society. Although individual input covered
a broad range of opinions, general themes could be identified for where
the Society could improve including:
networking opportunities for members: Participants value connections
where they can share information and resources and discuss problems
and potential solutions with people who are in similar positions.
They want to be able to look to ISPI to put them in touch with those
people that think like we think.
pool of research and easier access to the data:
Participants said that they would like to be able to look more to
ISPI for research data and access the data via the web.
shift regarding the relationship between the national organization
and the local chapters: Participants
expressed concern that there is competition between the national organization
and the local chapters. They would like to see thriving local chapters,
which they believe would improve the health of the national organization.
Were competing with one another. Its confusing,
its non-productive, and we have suffering membership.
views of the best imaginable ISPI included many good ideas.
I look forward to watching the Society become the best imaginable ISPI
for its current and future members!
summary or the summaries of the other focus group sessions raise some
ideas or comments, please contact the members of the Marketplace View
2002 Taskforce, Guy Wallace (firstname.lastname@example.org)
and John Swinney (email@example.com).
The International Society for Performance Improvement
(ISPI) has three special honorary awards that recognize outstanding
individuals and organizations for their significant contributions to
human performance technology and to the Society itself. The awards are
the Thomas F. Gilbert Distinguished Professional Achievement Award,
the Distinguished Service Award, and the Honorary Life Member Award.
As done in the past, the membership is asked to submit names of qualified
individuals for consideration for the Thomas F. Gilbert Distinguished
Professional Achievement Award and the Distinguished Service Award.
If you are interested in nominating an ISPI member, please email the
following information to firstname.lastname@example.org:
telephone number, and email of nominee
and telephone number of nominator
supporting information for the nominee
recipients were Thomas F. Gilbert Distinguished Professional Achievement
Award: Dr. Richard E. Clark; the Distinguished Service Award: Timm J.
Esque; and the Honorary Life Member Award: Wellesley R. Rob
Foshay, PhD. The deadline to receive nominations is November 15,
2002. For more detailed information on the guidelines used for selecting
individuals to receive these awards, please visit www.ispi.org
or click here.
Marketplace is a convenient way to exchange information of interest
to the performance improvement community. Take a few moments each
month to scan the listings for important new events, publications,
and services. If you would like to post information for our readers,
contact ISPI Director of Marketing, Dan Rudt at email@example.com
Evaluation: Tools and Techniques to Measure the Impact of Training
by Judith Hale, PhD, CPT. Based on over 25 years of experience working
with organizations to come up with better ways to evaluate programs,
this book provides a step-by-step process for evaluating training.
Aint Training by Harold D. Stolovitch, CPT and Erica
J. Keeps, CPT. Book tackles three universal questions: how do learners
learn, why do learners learn, and how do you make sure that learning
sticks? Hear the authors Webinar on November 6, www.astd.org/webinar.
Seminars, and Workshops
Institutes, San Francisco Bay- Silicon Valley Area, January 2003
the Transition to Performance Improvement and Principles and Practices
of Performance Improvement. Three-day, intensive workshops designed
to improve your organizations workplace performance.
Newsletters, and Journals
Learning Officer Magazine
We have just delivered our debut issue! Let CLO deliver the experts
to you through Chief Learning Officer magazine, www.CLOmedia.com,
and the Chief Learning Officer Executive Briefings electronic
newsletter. Subscriptions are free to qualified professionals residing
in the United States.
Now in its 15th year! Dont miss another issue of
this scholarly journal that provides cutting-edge research and information
necessary for you to keep on top of the business of improving human
performance. Subscribe today!
is a leading on-line resource providing HR professionals with daily
news, articles, expert insights, discussion groups, and more. ICG
(Intellectual Capital Group), a division of HR.com, provides cutting-edge
research reports called RedBooks™ identifying and analyzing
HR trends and technologies.
ISPI is looking for Human Performance Technology (HPT) articles
(approximately 500 words and not previously published) for PerformanceXpress
that bridge the gap from research to practice (please, no product or service
promotion is permitted). Below are a few examples of the article formats
that can be used:
I wish I had thought of that Articles
- The Application
to the article, please include a short bio (2-3 lines) and a contact email
address. All submissions should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Each article will be reviewed by one of ISPIs on-staff HPT experts,
and the author will be contacted if it is accepted for publication. If
you have any further questions, please contact email@example.com.
to printer-friendly version of this issue.
free to forward ISPIs PerformanceXpress newsletter to your
colleagues or anyone you think may benefit from the information. If you
are reading someone elses PerformanceXpress, send your complete
contact information to firstname.lastname@example.org,
and you will be added to the PerformanceXpress emailing list.
(formerly News & Notes and Quick Read) is an ISPI member
benefit designed to build community, stimulate discussion, and keep you
informed of the Societys activities and events. This newsletter
is published monthly and will be emailed to you at the beginning of each
you have any questions or comments, please contact April Davis, ISPIs
Senior Director of Publications, at email@example.com.
1400 Spring Street, Suite 260
Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA