by Harold D. Stolovitch, CPT & Erica J. Keeps, CPT

“I need a training program on....” The opening salvo in what often turns out to be a costly, frustrating, and unsuccessful campaign to achieve desired performance. The rationale for the training seems clear enough:

  • “We’re implementing a new system. People will have to be brought up to speed on it.”
  • “The quality of our customer service is being hammered. We’ve got to clean up our act.”
  • “They aren’t selling the new product.”

Let’s add more to the rationale. A number of respectable sources have shown how training and superior bottom line indicators are linked. Here are some examples:

  • Leading companies (in terms of expenditures in training) spent $1,655/employee versus the industry average of $677. Compared with industry average performance, leading training expenditure companies performed as follows (Van Buren, 2001):

    • Gross profit margin: +24%
    • Income per employee: +218%
    • Price to book value: +6%

  • Total return on Knowledge Asset Management (KAM) recommended portfolio of companies with high investment in training. KAM portfolio compared to S&P 500 average return:







KAM Portfolio







S&P 500







(Knowledge Asset Management, 2002)

  • People Management Practices (particularly investment in training) and financial results based upon 10 years’ worth of data (annualized results):

Financial Factor

High Performers

Low Performers

Sales growth



Profit growth



Profit margin



Growth in earnings/share



Total ROI



(Kravetz, 1998)

So, let’s train…right? Wrong! Maybe.

To Train or Not to Train
Gilbert (1996), Harless (1970), Rummler and Brache (1996), and Robinson and Robinson (1998) have all demonstrated that most performance deficiencies in the workplace are not a result of skill and knowledge gaps. Far more frequently, they are due to environmental factors, such as lack of clear expectations; insufficient and untimely feedback; lack of access to required information; inadequate tools, resources, and procedures; inappropriate and even counterproductive incentives; task interferences and administrative obstacles that prevent achieving desired results. To this list, we can add poor selection of persons to do the job and low value attributed to the desired process or outcome.

Yet when performance gaps occur, the default intervention is all too often “training.” And, if we’ve already trained them and they still aren’t attaining adequate results, why, let’s just train them again. Gilbert (1996) expressed it well when he stated that it is cheaper and easier to fix the environment than people, but we continue trying to fix people.

To close on this, if the reason for the gap is not lack of skill and knowledge, don’t train. Stop wasting money on training when it’s inappropriate.

Training is Necessary…but is it Sufficient?
With very few exceptions, the answer is “no.” Here are a few dramatic quotes to support this assertion:

  • Most of the investment in organizational training and development is wasted because most of the knowledge and skills gained in training (well over 80% by some estimates) is not fully applied by employees on the job (Broad and Newstrom, 1992).
  • American industries annually spend more than $100 billion on training…not more than 10% of the expenditures actually result in transfer to the job (Baldwin and Ford, 1988; reconfirmed by Ford and Weissbein, 1997).
  • Research indicates that, on average, less than 30% of what people learn (in training) actually gets used on the job (Robinson, 1996).

Why this phenomenon? Because of poor selection of persons to attend the training (“my manager signed me up;” “I had down time and it was available;” “retiring soon, taking all the training I can get;” “sounded interesting;” “day off work”); lack of expectations set by supervisors on how training is to be applied on the job; lack of support back on the job; lack of post-training performance monitoring; lack of resources; lack of incentives to apply new skills and knowledge. The list goes on. Without the appropriate pre- and post-training interventions and support mechanisms, workplace training, like the Spanish or French you were taught in high school, soon dissipates into the morass of other unmemorable events.

To summarize, training, as a one-shot injection, rarely works. Left on its own, it has little staying power. What we do before and after training is often more important than the training itself. Implementation is key. Stop wasting money on training if you are not prepared to support it as part of a total performance system.

Telling Ain’t Training
Where does most of your ability to perform well in your work come from? From what you have been told or from what you have experienced? Rarely does anyone select the former. This leads us to the mission of training: to transform performance capability, not to transmit information. Yet, how often have we experienced those dreadful one-way lectures or dull “transfer of information” sessions designed to make us wiser and better performers? Examine the table below and select from each pair of statements that begin with “I learn best when…” the one that best fits you.

I learn best when…

Column A                          or                          Column B

...someone who knows something I don’t explains and describes it to me.

...I dialogue and discuss with someone who knows something I don’t.

...I observe a demonstration.

...I get involved and try things out during a demonstration.

...I attend lectures in which an instructor presents information to me.

...I attend lectures in which an instructor engages me in a two-way interaction.

...what is presented to me is organized according to the logic of the content.

...what is presented to me is organized according to the logic of how I learn.

...I am told how things work.

...I explore how things work.

Were most of your selections from Column A or B? With no exceptions, everyone we have given this table to chooses the endings in Column B. This includes experienced instructors, teachers, and professors. Yet, when we observe training sessions in business or educational settings, we find practices that are mostly consistent with Column A. We witness few sessions that are truly learner-centered and performance-based. The result is inefficient use of learning time and little retention. Imagine a training class with 30 highly-paid workers passively sitting there, attempting to absorb what is being rather poorly transmitted. Calculate all the salaries and other costs compared to valued post-training results that are likely to emerge from such an event. Unless you are prepared to train people in harmony with how they learn and closely tie it to performance results, stop wasting money on training.

Organizations waste enormous sums of money on training when it’s not appropriate, sufficient, or effective. Stop wasting that money. Use it, instead, to make a difference in worthwhile learning and valued performance.

Baldwin, T.T. & Ford, K.J. (1988). Transfer of training: A review and directions for future research. Personnel Psychology, 41, 63-105.

Broad, M.L. & Newstrom, J.W. (1992). Transfer of training: Action-packed strategies to assure high pay-off from training investments. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.

Ford, J.R. & Weissbein, D.H. (1997). Transfer of training: an updated review and analysis. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 10 (2), 22-41.

Gilbert, T.F. (1996). Human competence: Engineering worthy performance. Silver Spring, MD: International Society for Performance Improvement.

Harless, J.H. (1970). An ounce of analysis is worth a pound of objectives. Newman, GA: Harless Performance Guild.

Knowledge Asset Management. (2002). Datasheet: hypothetical KAM back-tested portfolio recommendations, 1997-2001. Bethesda, MD: Knowledge Asset Management, Inc. (

Kravetz Associates. (1998). Training best practices. Bartlett, IL: Kravetz Associates.

Robinson, D.G. (1996). International perspectives on learning and performance, part 2. Paper presented at the International Conference of the American Society for Training and Development, Orlando, FL.

Robinson, D.G. & Robinson, J.C. (1998). Moving from training to performance: A practical guidebook. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Kohler Publishers Inc.

Rummler, G.A. & Brache, A.P. (1996). Improving performance: Managing the white space in the organization chart. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Van Buren, M.E. (2001). State of the industry: Report 2001. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.

Harold D. Stolovitch and Erica J. Keeps share a common passion—developing people. Together, they have devoted a combined total of more than 70 years to make workplace learning and performance both enjoyable and effective. They are principals of HSA Learning and Performance Solutions (HSA), an international firm focused on helping organizations achieve high levels of performance and success. They are co-authors of Telling Ain’t Training (ISPI/ASTD, 2002), a book that provides an entertaining and practical tour-de-force for every trainer and performance improvement professional. Harold and Erica may be reached at For more information on HSA, visit Harold and Erica will be conducting a one-hour Webinar called “Stop Wasting Money on Training,” powered by Interwise, on Thursday, June 27 at 11:00 am (PDT). Click here for more details or to register.




by Carol Haig & Roger Addison, CPT

During ISPI’s 2002 International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo in Dallas this past April, we talked with Klaus Wittkuhn of the Train organization in Bonn, Germany for this TrendSpotters interview. He may be reached at Klaus identified two trends to watch:

Significant Trends
Organizations want to get the most performance from their existing employees. The last few years have seen increased pressure to staff leaner and maximize each individual’s productivity. Human Performance Technology (HPT) provides the tools to systematically respond to this challenge and the methodology to develop cost-effective solutions.

Both international and global organizations are actively seeking out first-class performance improvement programs for their employees. Klaus describes international organizations as those that cross borders, such as in Europe, and global organizations as those with locations around the world. The standards they expect are higher than those sought by local companies.

Typically, international and global entities look for top-drawer management development programs with the highest quality of content, delivery, and materials packaging. Everything has to be extremely professional. Also, trainers are required to be fluent in English, and perhaps the local language as well.

These demands are re-defining quality for local vendors and providers who must then raise their own standards in order to compete. Very soon, all providers will have to deliver to these emerging international/global standards.

Impact of These Trends
The desire to get the most performance from existing employees presents a huge opportunity for training and development providers. Using the tools and techniques of HPT and showcasing the results will meet the needs of organizations, enhance individual employees’ marketability, and put our technology in front of prospects around the world.

As the search for quality performance improvement programs escalates, there will be increased pressure on vendors and providers at the local level to raise the quality bar and deliver to the “new” standards. To survive in business, they will have to be able to work across borders and meet these standards.

Implications for Performance Improvement
HPT’s systematic approach is the logical response to the need for getting the most performance from existing employees. Klaus sees the possibility of a new structural model evolving in which organizations identify their core staff members and invest heavily in their professional development. Other positions not considered core might be outsourced, contracted for, or handled by temporary workers.

The search for quality performance improvement programs might well provide the impetus for creating that core of highly developed employees while simultaneously enhancing the quality of delivered performance improvement programs.

If you have any suggestions about trends driving performance in today’s business environment that you feel would be of interest to the PerformanceXpress readership, please contact Carol Haig at or Roger Addison at


by Roger Kaufman, CPT

Clearing up the myth of education and training being different.
Conventional wisdom has it that education, training, and performance improvement are vaguely related fields, with significant differences that make the lessons learned in one inapplicable to the other. Not so fast: this conventional wisdom can prove hazardous to your professional health.

Organizations in both the public sector—including educational institutions and government agencies—like those in the private sector, are all competing for scarce resources. All are increasingly having to demonstrate value added, and all are paying increasing attention to defining, delivering, and proving useful results to society. Let’s clear up the artificial distinctions.

The boundaries of training are defined when you intend to transfer skills, knowledge, attitudes, or abilities (SKAAs) to known jobs and tasks. (I recognize the difference between training—a process—with HPT—defining and getting useful results. For convenience here, I use training to include HPT.) Education is when you want transfer of SKAAs to jobs and tasks that are still not defined. Further, education is not exempt from the performance the tasks of training/HPT. For education to be successful, it also must incorporate the transfer to known jobs and tasks (the building-block results of reading, spelling, computation, etc.) and then use those competencies to educate…to prepare learners to survive and thrive as they become contributing citizens in a world still evolving.

Today’s private-sector organizations are also realizing that they also must conduct both training and education. They recognize that today’s associates must help build the future of their organization along with each one’s life.

Both public and private organizations must add value to society.
Any useful guidance on human performance/training or education, therefore, must define and provide direction on creating the future, and then how to design to get from what is to what should be. In order to do this they use many of the principles and practices of training/HPT to create successful learning opportunities.

So, what is useful in education is also useful training. What is useful in training is also useful in education. They are quite similar when we strip away the borders that have often been falsely created. The vital emphasis on adding value outside the organization is, unfortunately, often missing from publications and applications in all fields of practice. Education usually respectfully tips its hat to “creating good citizens” and then slips back into the comfortable focus on course and curriculum development with an emphasis on passing courses and graduating. It usually doesn’t measure societal value added.

Non-educational organizations do the same: they focus on less than societal value added. Even conventional costs-results analyses stop short of measuring value added to external clients and society. They stop short at “business needs” (The 2001 Association for Educational Communications and Technology code of professional ethics provides an example of how educators often just tip our hats to societal results but then don’t address it in a measurable fashion.) What’s more, the conventional approaches to HPT also only focus on the splinters of performance—jobs and tasks—and assumes that all of the splinters of performance will be useful to the organization (and by assumption to external clients and society). Such is a huge leap in faith.

For both education and training/HPT to be successful they have to (1) base what they use and do on getting measurable results; and (2) demonstrate value added within and external to the organization by aligning what they use, do, produce, and deliver with external consequences. Education and training/HPT are more alike than different.

Association for Educational Communications and Technology (2001, Nov. 19). A code of professional ethics: A guide to professional conduct in the field of educational communications and technology. Bloomington, IN.

Related Readings
Kaufman, R. (1998). Strategic thinking: A guide to identifying and solving problems. Revised. Alexandria, VA & Silver Spring, MD: American Society for Training & Development and the International Society for Performance Improvement.

Kaufman, R. (2000). Mega planning: Practical tools for organizational success. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kaufman, R., Watkins, R., & Leigh, D. (2001). Useful educational results: Defining, prioritizing & accomplishing. Lancaster, PA: Pro>Active Press

Roger Kaufman, a past president of ISPI, is Professor and Director, Office for Needs Assessment & Planning, Florida State University. His latest book, Useful Educational Results: Defining, Prioritizing & Accomplishing, is co-authored with Doug Leigh and Ryan Watkins. In addition, Roger has authored Mega Planning, published by Sage, and Strategic Thinking, published by ISPI/ASTD. He may be reached at



So, what is useful in education is also useful training. What is useful in training is also useful in education. They are quite similar when we strip away the borders that have often been falsely created.

by John Swinney, ISPI Past President and Guy W. Wallace, ISPI President-elect

Task Force Background & Goals
The Marketplace View 2002 Task Force was chartered to distill a picture of the International Society for Performance Improvement’s (ISPI) marketplace, segment our markets for analysis, identify our competitors and their competitive products/services, and identify the various channels available for product/service distribution. Guy Wallace served as the chair for 2001-2002 and John Swinney is the chair for 2002-2003.

The goal is for ISPI to be more focused/aligned with the needs of our marketplace, and to render products/services that are superior to those offered by our competitors. We will build a tool for the staff, the Board, Society committees, and task forces to better analyze any/all ideas for ISPI products/services against the evolving “marketplace view.” The resulting Marketplace View tool and process will provide the Society a mechanism to assure a clear understanding of stated needs and the competitive position of an idea.

Also, ISPI will not only/always follow the voices from the marketplace; there may be times when the Society will need to lead the marketplace.

Advisor and Advice
Our Task Force advisor is Dr. Peter Wilton, a marketing consultant and professor from Stanford and U.C. Berkley. Dr. Wilton shared an ISPI Award of Excellence in 2001 with Sun Microsystems, and was encouraged to help us by ISPI’s president, Jim Hill.

Dr. Wilton reviewed our initial plan and counseled us to use focus groups of tightly defined segments, and besides other questions, pose to each: What products/services/aspects of the Society could make us “the best imaginable ISPI?” His advice was much more extensive than this, but our space is limited here.

Market Segment Framework
Our marketplace segments frame our members and prospects along the following dimensions:

  • ISD only or HPT (inclusive of ISD)
  • Enterprise or Academia or Consulting firms
  • Executive or Manager or Individual Contributor
  • Partner or Client or Prospect (a reflection of their level of affiliation with ISPI)

When we consider all the dimensions, the result is 54 segments to review. We don’t plan on doing them all, but we do intend to keep the data segregated within this framework as best we can.

We began the data collection at the 2002 ISPI International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo with five focus groups. It was intended as a “pilot-test” of this approach. The original plan included conducting eight sessions as selected from the 54 segments by the ISPI Board of Directors. We ended up with only enough volunteers for four of those targeted eight; but we had stirred up some interest. As Dan Rudt, ISPI’s Marketing Director, recruited for the eight groups, he was able to convene a new fifth group, the consulting organizations (focused on both ISD only and HPT, with both Managers and Individual Contributors) to take better advantage of volunteer moderators’ availability.

Conference Focus Groups
The five focus groups were:

  1. HPT-Enterprise-Manager-Partner, moderated by Patrick Murphy, Stractics
  2. ISD-Enterprise-Manager-Client, moderated by Kelly Smith, CADDI
  3. HPT-Enterprise-Individual Contributor-Client, moderated by Pat Boyle, Stractics
  4. HPT-Enterprise-Manager-Client, moderated by Brian Blecke, CADDI
  5. HPT-Consultant-Manager & Individual Contributor-Partner & Client, moderated by Patrick Murphy, Stractics

Next Steps
The moderators will be writing a series of articles for PerformanceXpress over the next several months to further the Society-wide dialogue and participation. Again, we will continue to share and gather additional “voices from the marketplace” from responding members to “build on” what we have already begun to collect and learn from via the “initial focus groups.” It doesn’t end with just these first voices! We want the entire Society to participate and provide input on their needs and feedback on ISPI’s offerings versus those of its “competitors.”

What products, services, and aspects of the Society do you feel could make us “the best imaginable ISPI”? Email your comments to or For more information on the Task Force effort, please see the attached Task Force Project Overview.


Our question to you: What products, services, and aspects of the Society could make us “the best imaginable ISPI”?

by Carl Binder

The GOT RESULTS? exhibit at the 2002 ISPI International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo in Dallas was a great success. Twenty-six poster presentations demonstrated a wide range of performance interventions and approaches to measurement. They shared measures of behavior, job outputs (accomplishments), and/or business results expressed in standard, countable units. It’s possible, given the relatively low proportion of concurrent sessions that usually present results data, that GOT RESULTS? doubled the number of data-based presentations at the conference. What’s certain is that the GOT RESULTS? presenters made a great contribution to the conference by quantifying and sharing the effects of their work. While it was a challenge for Timm Esque and I to round up that many data-based presentations, the result was well worth all our arm-twisting and jawboning. The good news is that for those who missed the conference (or who want to take a closer look in the privacy of their own web browsers), the GOT RESULTS? presentations will soon be available in PDF format at

Timm and I are already looking for contributors to a GOT RESULTS? exhibit at the 2003 ISPI International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo in Boston. We’re also seeking other people to help organize the exhibit, to spread the word, and to manage some of the logistics of putting together an even bigger and more diverse set of data-based presentations next year. Please email Timm or me if you would like to be included. This is a way to help demonstrate, encourage, and expand the gathering and sharing of performance results data in our profession, and particularly within ISPI, the home of results-driven performance improvement.

In future columns we’ll explore reasons that practitioners do not, or cannot, collect and share more measures of behavior, job outputs, or business results. We want to better identify with our colleagues the obstacles to measuring and sharing performance results. We’d like to begin a discussion of practical strategies and tactics for increasing the frequency of results measurement and data-sharing. I’d appreciate hearing from readers who have encountered obstacles to measurement, and from those who’ve discovered ways to overcome such obstacles. It’s an important issue, and we can use this column to talk about it.

To begin the practical discussion of measurement tactics promised at the end of last month’s column, here is one more opportunity for input from readers. My consulting firm does a lot of work in customer call centers—usually rather data-rich parts of organizations. Call center managers are accustomed to capturing and using measures of productivity, service quality, and other important results. This makes the typical call center a veritable playground for a measurement-oriented performance consultant. In what other parts of organizations do managers routinely capture and use data to make decisions and provide feedback about performance? If you tell me about similar mother lodes of data in organizations that you know, I’ll be sure to share that information with the readers of this column. It might be that some of us would choose to gravitate toward clients interested in using measurement rather than fighting what is sometimes an uphill battle to install measurement and feedback systems in the organizations we currently serve. In any case, it will be good to better understand where in the typical organization we are more likely to find effective data-based management systems. Speaking of which, if you haven’t seen it already, be sure to check out Timm Esque’s new book, Making an Impact. It presents an elegant model of performance consulting in which the collection and use of results data to manage performance is at the heart of the process.

Dr. Carl Binder is a Senior Partner at Binder Riha Associates, a consulting firm that helps clients improve processes, performance, and behavior to deliver valuable results. His easy-to-remember e-mail address is and his company’s website is



How do you partner with business managers to identify business-critical problems affecting performance in your organization? Is web-based training the answer to your particular need? If it is, how do you design the training to be most effective? What principles of multimedia design should you be aware of?

These are some of the questions raised and answered in three, full-day workshops on Wednesday, September 25, 2002 at the Palmer House Hilton in Chicago, IL. The workshops precede the three-day International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) fall conference on Performance-Based Instructional Systems Design.

The workshops are Designing Instruction for Web-Based Training, with Dr. Tom Welsh, PhD, Darryl L. Sink & Associates, Inc.; E-Learning & The Science of Instruction: Guidelines for the Selection and Design of e-Learning, with Ruth Colvin Clark, EdD, President, Clark Training; and Looking at Performance through Business Glasses: Linking ISD to Business Results, with Lynn Kearny, Human Performance Management and Kenneth H. Silber, PhD, Associate Professor, Educational Technology Research and Assessment, Northern Illinois University.

The workshops and conference are designed to provide you with new knowledge and insights, useful performance tools, and valuable new contacts with experts and peers. Attendance is limited, so make your plans early. For additional information on the conference visit, Performance-Based Instructional Systems Design or register today!



by Judith Hale, PhD, CPT

There are a number of reasons why you should care about the International Society for Performance Improvement’s (ISPI) certification, the Certified Performance Technologist (CPT). To me the most significant reason is that it lays the foundation to our being recognized as a profession. According to the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) and the Department of Labor, there are five characteristics of a profession. A profession has:
  1. An organization that can speak as a unified voice for its members and foster the development of the field. ISPI and its chapters represent more than 10,000 practitioners worldwide. The Society promotes education and development through its publications, institutes, and conferences.
  2. A Code of Ethics that identifies standards of behavior relating to fairness, justice, truthfulness, and social responsibility. ISPI has a Code of Ethics based on the principles of added value, validated practice, collaboration, continuous improvement, integrity, and confidentiality.
  3. Applied research related to the field. ISPI funds and publishes research on a regular basis.
  4. A defined body of knowledge. ISPI, through its performance improvement standards, has defined what each of us should know and be able to do.
  5. A credential based on professional standards. ISPI’s credential, the Certified Performance Technologist (CPT), is based on demonstrated proficiency in the standards in ways that are in keeping with the Code of eEhics.

ISPI developed the certification to:

  1. Promote performance technology standards worldwide.
  2. Provide clients, consumers, and employers with criteria to judge products and professional services.
  3. Provide practitioners with criteria to judge their work and direct their professional development.

Here are a few of the more frequently asked questions.

  1. I don’t do all of the interventions. Do I qualify for the certification?
    People will be certified because they demonstrate the standards, not because they are proficient in a smorgasbord of interventions. A person can be certified if they only concentrate in one or more of the families of interventions, like the design of instruction, job, processes, job aids and performance support tools, feedback systems, etc.

  2. Do I have to take a test?
    The certification is performance-based, not test or education based. This means people can be certified because their work and how they do it satisfies the standards, not because they can pass a test or complete a training or education program.

  3. Who will recognize ISPI’s certification?
    ISPI has incorporated the standards for certifications published by the National Organization for Competency Assurance (NOCA), the National Skills Standards Board (NSSB), the International Standards Organization (ISO), and the National Alliance of Business. The goal is for ISPI’s credential to be accredited or recognized by these groups. Also, the people who helped build it represented employers, academics, vendors, and practitioners. They all support the standards.

To learn more visit or email ISPI at

Judith Hale was the first recipient of ISPI’s new certification, the CPT. She is the author of Performance-Based Evaluation (2002), Performance-Based Certification (2000), Performance Consultant’s Fieldbook (1998), Workbook and Job Aids for Designing Tests (1996), Standards for the Training Function (1995), The Training Manager’s Competencies (1989), and co-author of Achieving a Leadership Role for Training (1995). Judith has been a consultant to management for more than 27 years. She specializes in assessment and performance analysis. Judith may be reached at


by Peter Han

If one were to measure the value of a conference by the subsequent application of teachings by conference attendees, then I would assess the annual ISPI International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo as a tremendous business investment. With a dozen years of experience as a Human Resources generalist, I immediately recognized the value of the numerous performance improvement tools offered by the ISPI conferences. These tools facilitate my efforts to enhance the rigor and discipline by which my organization addresses employee development and performance enhancement needs. Not only do they facilitate the actual improvement process, the tools also serve as persuasive communication methods to broaden my client’s perspective of performance.

Within a few weeks after attending the Principles & Practices Institute and my first ISPI conference in April 2001, I had applied Gilbert’s Behavior Engineering Model while consulting on a performance issue in my organization. Within another few weeks, I had employed the ROI model as a member of an employee development team. Within two weeks of attending my second ISPI conference in April 2002, I applied a high impact learning model that I learned from a pre-conference workshop hosted by the Triad Performance Technologies consulting firm. These examples can be found by clicking on the links below:

  1. Gilbert Model: Delegation Effectiveness
  2. Gilbert Model: GTO Technician Development
  3. ROI Analysis
  4. Triad Consulting’s High Impact Learning model

I continue to be impressed by the practical benefits that my membership in ISPI provides me and look forward to increasing my participation as a member. My goal in this area is to present an innovative forum at the 2003 ISPI International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo in Boston, MA and to work toward my ISPI certification.

As a Human Resources professional, my involvement with ISPI has very nicely complemented my membership in SHRM. ISPI offers a treasure trove of innovative and practical tools that I have found eminently useful.

Peter Han is a Learning Consultant, Organizational Learning/Leadership Development for Lyondell/Equistar. He may be reached at


I continue to be impressed by the practical benefits that my membership in ISPI provides me and look forward to increasing my participation as a member. As a Human Resources professional, my involvement with ISPI has very nicely complemented my membership in SHRM.

When was the last time you checked out the award-winning International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) Job Bank at to search for great jobs or qualified candidates? Listed in various guides to Internet job bank sites as one of the best deals around, the job bank offers reasonable rates for employers and a discounted rate to members for viewing resumes. As always, candidates may post their resume or search for jobs absolutely free! Quality employers and candidates sign up to post jobs and resumes everyday.

Right now we have jobs available in the fields of Instructional Design/Development, Organizational Development, Organizational Change, Training/Education Management, Training, Distance Learning, Multimedia/CBT, Performance Improvement, Human Resource Management, and much more! Typical salary ranges are from $50-$100K and geographic locations are available all over the United States and Canada. Companies that have recently placed jobs in the ISPI Job Bank include Coca-Cola, Harvard University, Microsoft, Northwestern University, Novartis, Sabre, and Xerox just to name a few.

What are you waiting for? Log-on to the and check out the valuable Job Bank today!


Submit your ideas and present at the premier performance improvement event of the year! Prepare a proposal by the July 26, 2002 deadline, and you could be on your way to presenting at ISPI’s International Performance Improvement Conference & Expo, April 12-16, 2003 in Boston, MA. Download the submission guidelines at or send an email to and request a 2003 Invitation to Present and complete guidelines will be mailed to you.



Haven’t heard of the ISPI Award of Excellence Program? Well, have you heard of:

Caterpillar • Ford Motor Company • SUN Microsystems • Imperial Oil • CEP Press • Helzberg Diamonds • Creative Courseware, Inc. • River’s Edge Studio Inc. • America’s Kids Connect • Instructional Design Consortium • Harold D. Stolovitch & Associates • CADDI, Inc. • Compaq • TDCanada Trust

…and members just like you! Submit your ideas, innovations, programs, or training tools by the October 25, 2002 deadline, and you could be on your way to earning the recognition you deserve. Complete details and submission packets are available at or contact Ellen Kaplan, ISPI Senior Director of Meetings at for more information.


Once again, it is time for the membership of the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI) to determine the future direction of the organization by nominating those members that you feel have the qualifications, experience, and vision to lead our Society. Up for nominations this year are the President-elect and three Board members. They will join the President, two continuing Board members, and the non-voting Executive Director who make up the eight-member Board.

The duties of the Board are to manage the affairs of the Society and determine the strategic direction and policy of the Society.

Brief Job Descriptions
The President-elect assumes the Presidency of ISPI for a one-year term at the conclusion of his/her one-year term as President-elect. The President-elect’s efforts are directed to assuming the Presidency and assignments are designed in preparation for that transition. The President-elect serves to provide continuity of programs, goals, objectives, and strategic direction in keeping with the policy established by the Board of Directors.

Each Director on the Board serves a two-year term and is a leader in motivating support for established policy. He/she serves to develop new policy and to obtain support for ISPI’s programs. A Director should provide an objective point of view in open discussions on issues affecting the membership and profession. He/she should thoroughly analyze each problem considered, vote responsibly, and then support those actions adopted by majority vote. Individually, each member of the Board is considered a spokesperson for ISPI and represents the integrity, dedication, and loyalty to established policy.

The Nomination Process
You may nominate as many ISPI members as you wish for each position. When the time for nominations has elapsed, each nominated member will be sent the job description and qualifications for his/her nominated position. If the nominated member decides to accept the nomination and run, he/she will be asked to submit a Qualifications Statement and several ISPI references.

The Selection Process
The Nominations Committee, using a criterion-based review process, determines whether or not each nominee meets the posted qualifications. The committee then contacts the references for each nominee and selects and recommends the slate to the Board of Directors. The selected slate is contacted to provide their candidate statements and a picture for inclusion in the candidate brochure and ballot.

The Voting Process
ISPI Bylaws state that the voting process is to be conducted by mail. International members are allowed to vote electronically, due to potential mail service delays. Results of the voting are provided to the officials of ISPI and to all candidates. The results are then presented to the membership-at-large through notification in PerformanceXpress.

Nominations are now open. If you would like to nominate someone, please send the your name and contact information along with the nominee’s name and contact information to Be sure to indicate the Board position you are submitting for in the Subject line.


Member participation is important — submit your nomination today at

ISPI is looking for Human Performance Technology (HPT) articles
(approximately 500 words and not previously published) for PerformanceXpress that bridge the gap from research to practice (please, no product or service promotion is permitted). Below are a few examples of the article formats that can be used:

  • Short “I wish I had thought of that” Articles
  • Practical Application Articles
  • The Application of HPT
  • Success Stories

In addition to the article, please include a short bio (2-3 lines) and a contact email address. All submissions should be sent to Each article will be reviewed by one of ISPI’s on-staff HPT experts, and the author will be contacted if it is accepted for publication. If you have any further questions, please contact



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PerformanceXpress (formerly News & Notes and Quick Read) is an ISPI member benefit designed to build community, stimulate discussion, and keep you informed of the Society’s activities and events. This newsletter is published monthly and will be emailed to you at the beginning of each month.

If you have any questions or comments, please contact April Davis, ISPI’s Senior Director of Publications, at


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Silver Spring, MD 20910 USA
Phone: 1.301.587.8570
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